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Osteichthyes. The Bony Fish. Class Osteichthyes. Characterized by having: Bone in their skeleton An operculum covering the gill openings A swimbladder or lungs True scales Paired fins Homocercal tail (Exception lungfish – diphycercal) Mouth terminal Two chambered heart

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The Bony Fish

class osteichthyes
Class Osteichthyes

Characterized by having:

  • Bone in their skeleton
  • An operculum covering the gill openings
  • A swimbladder or lungs
  • True scales
  • Paired fins
  • Homocercal tail (Exception lungfish – diphycercal)
  • Mouth terminal
  • Two chambered heart
  • Sexes separate (Sex reversal in some)
  • Fertilization external for most
  • Excrete ammonia
class osteichthyes3
Class Osteichthyes

The bony fishes are the most diverse class of fish. ~24,000 species

Osteichthyes are divided into two subclasses

  • The lobe-finned fish (Sarcopterygians)
  • The ray-finned fish (Actinopterygians).

*Most modern fish are members of the ray-finned, Teleost subdivision.

  • Sarcopterygians are the fish most closely related to modern amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals
  • This subclass includes the lungfish and coelacanth. Coelacanth were thought to have become extinct at about the same time as the dinosaurs, until a live specimen was found in 1938
  • Characteristics:
  • Muscular lobe associated with fins
  • Have lungs for gas exchange
  • Live in areas with seasonal droughts
  • Can breathe air if water stagnates
  • Cannot withstand desiccation
  • Burrow in the mud
  • Have enamel on the teeth
  • Can survive drought by remaining in aestivation for 6 months or more
  • Aestivation = dormant state
  • After rain fills the lake or riverbed Lungfish emerge from their burrows to feed & reproduce
lungfish scales
Lungfish scales
  • Cosmoid scales
  • Ray-finned fish (Fins lack muscular lobes)
  • Have swimbldders to regulate buoyancy
  • ~23,900 species
chondrosteans fresh water fish
Chondrosteans (Fresh water fish)
  • Include stergeons and paddlefish
  • Stergeon eggs make caviar
subdivisions of teleostei
Subdivisions of Teleostei
  • Superorder Ostariophysi
  • Order Cypriniformes (minnows, carps)
  • Order Siluriformes (catfish)
  • Superorder Protacanthopterygii
  • Order Esociformes (pikes)
  • Order Osmeriformes (smelts)
  • Order Salmoniformes (salmon, trout, whitefish)
  • Superorder Paracanthopterygii
  • Order Gadiformes (cod, hakes, pollock)
  • Superorder Acanthopterygii
  • Order Percoidei (perches, snook, basses)
  • Order Pleuronectiformes (flounders, soles)
  • Order Perciformes (mackerel, tuna, swordfish)
actinopterygians the teleosts
Actinopterygians TheTeleosts
  • Teleosts are modern day ray-finned fish
  • Use their fins and body wall to push against water for locomotion
  • Some secrete mucus to reduce friction
  • Most teleosts are carnivores swallowing prey whole
  • Herring & paddlefish are filter feeders
  • Teleosts have pyloric ceca (outpockets in the small intestine to increase absorption)
ganoid fish scales
Ganoid Fish Scales
  • Found on non-teleost bony fishes
  • Usually diamond shaped bony scales
  • “Heavy armor”
cycloid fish scales
Cycloid Fish scales
  • Found on teleost fishes
  • Light, thin, & flexible
ctenoid fish scales
Ctenoid Fish Scales
  • Teleost fishes
  • Have comblike ridges along the exposed edge to reduce friction (drag)
swimming mechanics
Swimming mechanics
  • Thrust- force in animal's direction 
  • Lift- force opposite in right angles to the thrust 
  • Drag- force opposite the direction of movement
swimming mechanics26
Swimming mechanics
  • Yaw – side to side movement of head
  • Pitch – up and down movement of head