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Los Angeles Air Quality Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa and Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger. Michelle Bible Mark Heimovitz Marleen Kindel Mike Langlais Ryan Yahna. Natural Effects on Air Pollution in Los Angeles County.

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Los Angeles Air Quality Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa and Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger

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Los Angeles Air Quality

Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa and Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger

Michelle Bible

Mark Heimovitz

Marleen Kindel

Mike Langlais

Ryan Yahna

natural effects on air pollution in los angeles county
Natural Effects on Air Pollution in Los Angeles County
  • Los Angeles lies on a coastal plain surrounded by mountains that separate the coastal climate from a desert
  • Mountain Ranges: San Gabriel, Santa Monica, Santa Susana, Verdugo
  • Pollution is trapped between the mountains and the ocean
  • The Los Angeles basin is the largest flat basin opening onto the Pacific Ocean
natural effects continued
Natural Effects (continued)
  • Cooler air, containing pollution, is trapped under a layer of warmer air, making it difficult to rise over the mountains
  • Fog comes in from the ocean, creating the infamous California smog

Urban Development of

Los Angeles

  • Los Angeles holds 6,400 miles of road and 160 miles of freeway
  • Sprawling suburban developments, lacking of condensed urban center
  • Limited public transportation use
    • 10.5% of LA residents use public transportation, compared to 53.4% of New York City residents
history of transportation in la
History of Transportation in LA
  • Trains were the most popular way to move in LA from the late 1800s until 1963 when the last street car shut down
  • Cars became the most popular means as they became affordable in the 50s and 60s
  • Buses were the main source of public transportation from 1963 until the 1990s when the railways became popular again
public transportation today
Public Transportation Today
  • Today 270,000 commuters travel on the Metro –the LA rail system - each day, and it is still increasing
  • Amtrak rails, public buses, bicycle stations, and taxi services are all in service as well
problems with the modern public transportation
Problems With the Modern Public Transportation
  • LA is a large city, so long distance travel can be difficult:
  • Buses – may have to switch, may have to wait long, and may have to travel far to bus stations
  • Maybe too far for a bicycle everyday
  • Taxis – fares will be

too high

public transportation
Public Transportation
  • Public Transportation is relatively cheap compared to money spent on gas
  • For the MTA metro, a rail pass is $62 monthly and $5 daily for commuters
  • Bus fares are

about $1.50

  • However, cars are

still the most popular

way to travel, with

about 12 million cars

on the Los Angeles

highways each day

mobile source contributions to the problem of l a pollution
Mobile Source Contributions to the Problem of L.A. Pollution
  • 34% of the Population of CA lives in the greater Los Angeles Metropolitan area (13million out of 37.7million).
  • Los Angeles has made drastic steps towards reducing mobile source emissions.
  • Problems: Nitrous Oxides, Sulfur Oxides, Carbon Monoxide, PM2.5, PM10.
  • Solutions: Electric / Hybrid Vehicles, Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles, Cleaner Gasoline, Cleaner Diesel, Alternative Fuels
emissions 2006 averages
  • State of California
  • PM2.5 - 679.1 tons/day
  • PM10 – 2086.1 tons/day
  • SOx – 304.3 tons/day
  • NOx – 3557.7 tons/day
  • CO – 12,454.9 tons/day
  • L.A. Metro
    • (Mobile Sources Only)
  • PM2.5 – 11.9 tons/day
  • PM10 – 13.4 tons/day
  • SOx – 4.8 tons/day
  • NOx - 221 tons/day
  • CO – 422.9 tons/day

PercentagesPM2.5 - 1.75% of State Pollution - 24.5% of L.A. PollutionPM10 - 0.64% of State Pollution - 7.5% of L.A. PollutionSOx - 1.57% of State Pollution - 45.7% of L.A. PollutionNOx - 6.21% of State Pollution - 77.3% of L.A. PollutionCO - 3.39% of State Pollution - 88.9% of L.A. Pollution

gasoline vehicles
Gasoline Vehicles
  • Classifications:
    • TLEV – Transitional Low Emission Vehicle
      • Phased out as of 2004
    • LEV – Low Emission Vehicle
      • Required for all Vehicles in CA
    • ULEV – Ultra Low Emission Vehicle
      • 50% Cleaner than the average on-road vehicle
    • SULEV – Super Ultra Low Emission Vehicle
      • 90% Cleaner than the average on-road vehicle
    • PZEV – Partial Zero Emission Vehicle
      • SULEV, but while driven less emissions than a LEV idling, 0 evaporative emissions
    • AT PZEV – Advanced Technology PZEV
      • Hybrid Vehicles that meet PZEV
    • ZEV – Zero Emission Vehicle
      • 98% Cleaner than the average on-road vehicle
cleaning up gasoline
Cleaning Up Gasoline
  • Phase 1 (1992)
    • Lead Gasoline banned for use on public roadways
  • Phase 2 (1996)
    • Reduction in 300ton of emission pollution each day (The equivalent of 3.5million vehicles)
    • 15% reduction of smog emissions
    • 40% reduction of toxic air emissions
    • New Engine Control Programs to - OBDII
  • Phase 3 (2002)
    • MTBE (C5H12O) banned by 2004 in gasolines
    • Sulfur reduction (inhibits catalytic converter reaction)
    • 19 less tons per day, 7% less toxic emissions
diesel fuel cleanup
  • DPM – Diesel Particulate Matter
    • .1g/bhp-hr down to .01g/bhp-hr (2001)
    • Off-road, on-road, stationary diesel engines
    • CARB requires lowest sulfur content in diesel fuel in the nation
    • 75% DPM reduction 2010, 85% by 2020
  • Solutions:
    • DPM Filters
    • Old engines must be: replaced, converted, operation reduced
    • Regulations on idling of diesel vehicles
    • Sulfur and nitrogen content in fuel reduction
plans in effect
Plans in Effect
  • Carl Moyer Program
    • $155million aided in 320ton/year redux in DPM
  • Hydrogen Highway
    • California Fuel Cell Partnership
      • Car manufacturers, Gasoline Companies, CARB, US Department of Energy, Technology Companies
      • Aided in the fleeting of fuel cell buses

What is the Impact of Breathing in Polluted Air?

concern for california s children
Concern for California’s Children

Children are more susceptible to lung damage because:

  • Respiratory, hormone and other systems are still growing and maturing
  • Spend more time outdoors
  • Breathe more rapidly
  • Widespread pollutants that cause the most lung damage are:
  • Particulate Matter
  • Ozone
attaining the california particulate matter and ozone standards would annually prevent
Attaining the California Particulate Matter and Ozone Standards Would Annually prevent:
  • About 6,500 premature deaths
  • 4,000 hospital admissions for respiratory disease
  • 3,000 hospital admissions for cardiovascular disease
  • 2,000 asthma-related emergency room visits
  • 800,000 cases of lower and upper respiratory symptoms in children
  • 8,000 cases of chronic bronchitis
  • 350,000 asthma attacks
  • 1.3 million school absences

Air Pollution Effects on the San Bernardino Mountains

The San Bernardino Mountains in Southern California have had a long history of chronic exposure to high levels of ozone, particulate nitrate, and other pollutants.



  • California Clean Air Act
    • Creating California Air Resources Board and Air Quality Management Districts
    • Addressed pollution coming from mobile sources
    • Effective at reducing auto emissions

State Agencies:

  • Air Resources Board:
    • Primary agency for protecting air quality in California
  • Public Utilities Commission:
    • promote use of natural gas
  • California Energy Commission:
    • Encourage development of alternative fuels
global warming and public action
Global Warming and Public Action
  • The consumption of dirty fossil fuels, like coal and oil, causes gases such as carbon dioxide to accumulate in the earth’s atmosphere.
  •  This is creating a “greenhouse” effect, raising the temperature of the planet, causing extreme weather, spreading infectious diseases, raising the sea level, and increasing extinctions of entire species.
  •  Unless we begin a substantial shift now from fossil fuels to renewable energy sources, like solar and wind power, the consequences could be catastrophic.
  • In the City of Los Angeles, any home or business can request electricity from non-polluting renewable sources like solar and wind power.
public action cont d
Public Action (cont’d)
  • LA citizens can be carbon neutral by making an annual contribution to a carbon offset program, which funds high quality greenhouse gas offset projects.
  • LA citizens can stay informed on clean energy topics by joining the Union of Concerned Scientists EnergyNet email mailing list and by utilizing many other sources.
earth day in la
Earth Day in LA
  • Los Angeles News Release
    • Earth Day is every day
    • Earth’s 911 hotline
      • 1-800-cleanup
      • only nationwide database of community-specific environmental resources and information