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Motivation: From Concepts to Applications . April 1, 2014 Chapter 5. A Key Point. Performance = Effort x Ability x Support/Resources Motivation is the concern over controlling (increasing) effort. A Key Thought.

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a key point
A Key Point

Performance =

Effort x Ability x Support/Resources

Motivation is the concern over

controlling (increasing) effort

MQM 421/Spring 2006

a key thought
A Key Thought

“An essential element of organizations is the willingness of persons to contribute their individual efforts to the. . .system. The power of cooperation, which is often spectacularly great when contrasted with that even of large numbers of individuals unorganized, is nevertheless dependent on the willingness of individuals to cooperate and to contribute their efforts to the [organizations].”

Chester Barnard, The Functions of the Executive

MQM 421/Spring 2006

management by objectives mbo
Management by Objectives(MBO)

Emphasizes converting overall organizational objectives into specific objectives for individual units and members that are tangible, verifiable, and measurable

MQM 421/Spring 2006

cascading of objectives
Cascading of Objectives







MQM 421/Spring 2006

management by objectives
Management by Objectives

Four ingredients common to MBO programs:

1. Goal specificity

2. Participative decision making

3. Explicit time period

4. Performance feedback

MQM 421/Spring 2006

management by objectives7
Management by Objectives
  • Organizational objectives translated to specific objectives for each level (division, department, individual)
  • Lower-level managers participate in setting their own goals

MQM 421/Spring 2006

management by objectives8
Management by Objectives
  • Results in hierarchy of objectives that links one level to the next
  • If all individuals achieve goals, organizational objectives will be attained.

MQM 421/Spring 2006

behavior modification ob mod
Behavior Modification (OB Mod)

The application of reinforcement theory to individuals in the work setting

MQM 421/Spring 2006


Measure:Baseline thefrequency ofresponse

Identifyexistingbehavioralcontingenciesthroughfunctional analysis




Steps in OB MOD



Measure:Chart thefrequencyof responseafterintervention

Evaluate for





MQM 421/Spring 2006

employee recognition programs
Employee Recognition Programs

Programs where specific types of behavior are encouraged and the procedures for attaining recognition are clearly identified

MQM 421/Spring 2006

employee recognition programs12
Employee Recognition Programs
  • Rewarding behavior with recognition immediately leads to its repetition.
  • To maximize motivation potential, publicly communicate who and why is being recognized.

MQM 421/Spring 2006

employee recognition programs13
Employee Recognition Programs

Critics argue that employee recognition programs are highly susceptible to political manipulation by management

MQM 421/Spring 2006

employee involvement
Employee involvement
  • Participative process that uses the entire capacity of employees
  • Designed to encourage increased commitment to the organization’s success

MQM 421/Spring 2006

employee involvement15
Employee involvement

Involving workers in decisions that will affect them and increasing their autonomy and control over their work lives

MQM 421/Spring 2006

employee involvement16
Employee Involvement

Will make employees:

  • More motivated
  • More committed to the organization
  • More productive
  • More satisfied with their jobs

MQM 421/Spring 2006

participative management
Participative Management  
  • Employees actually share a significant degree of decision-making power with their immediate superiors
  • Not appropriate for every organization or every work unit

MQM 421/Spring 2006

participative management18
Participative Management
  • Must be adequate time to participate
  • Issues in which employees get involved must be relevant to them
  • Employees must have the ability (intelligence, technical knowledge, communication skills) to participate
  • Organization’s culture must support employee involvement

MQM 421/Spring 2006

representative participation
Representative Participation  
  • Workers are represented by a small group of employees who actually participate
  • Goal is to redistribute power within an organization
  • Overall influence on working employees seems to be minimal

MQM 421/Spring 2006

representative participation20
Representative Participation  
  • Works councils
  • Board representatives

MQM 421/Spring 2006

employee stock ownership plans
Employee Stock Ownership Plans
  • Company-established benefit plans in which employees acquire stock, often at below-market prices, as part of their benefits
  • Have the potential to increase employee job satisfaction and work motivation

MQM 421/Spring 2006

job redesign and scheduling programs
Job Redesign and Scheduling Programs
  • Job rotation
    • periodic shifting of an employee from one task to another
      • Reduces boredom and increases motivation
  • Job enlargement
    • Increasing the number and variety of tasks that an individual performed
  • Job enrichment
    • increases the degree to which the worker controls the planning, execution, and evaluation of his or her work

MQM 421/Spring 2006

how does management enrich an employee s job
How does management enrich an employee’s job?
  • Combine tasks
  • Form natural work units
  • Establish client relationships
  • Expand jobs vertically
  • Open feedback channels

MQM 421/Spring 2006


Benefits include:

  • Reduced absenteeism
  • Increased productivity
  • Reduced overtime expenses
  • Lessening in hostility toward management
  • Reduced traffic congestion around work sites,
  • Elimination of tardiness
  • Increased autonomy and responsibility for employees that may increase employee job satisfaction

MQM 421/Spring 2006

job sharing
Job Sharing

Allows two or more individuals to split a traditional 40-hour-a-week job

MQM 421/Spring 2006


Employees who do their work at home at least two days a week on a computer that is linked to their office

MQM 421/Spring 2006


Benefits include:

  • larger labor pool from which to select
  • higher productivity
  • less turnover
  • improved morale
  • reduced office-space costs

MQM 421/Spring 2006

telecommuting downsides
Telecommuting: Downsides
  • The major downside for management is less direct supervision of employees
  • May make it more difficult for management to coordinate teamwork
  • Lose of social network for employees

MQM 421/Spring 2006

variable pay programs
Variable-Pay Programs

A portion of an employee’s pay is based on some individual or organizational measure of performance or both

MQM 421/Spring 2006

incentive pay programs
Incentive Pay Programs
  • Piece-rate plans
  • Wage incentives
  • Profit sharing
  • Bonuses
  • Gainsharing

MQM 421/Spring 2006

skill based pay plans
Skill-Based Pay Plans

Sets pay levels on the basis of how many skills employees have or how many jobs they can do

MQM 421/Spring 2006

motivating a diverse workforce
Motivating a Diverse Workforce
  • Be flexible
  • Be ready to design work schedules, compensation plans, benefits, physical work settings to reflect your employees’ varied needs

MQM 421/Spring 2006