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Evaluating Impact of Exposure to Mass Media Campaign on Accepting Attitudes Towards PLWHA in Nigeria. R. Fakolade, S.B. Adebayo, J. Anyanti & A. Ankomah Society for Family Health Abuja, Nigeria Email:- [email protected] Introduction.

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Evaluating Impact of Exposure to Mass Media Campaign on Accepting Attitudes Towards PLWHA in Nigeria

R. Fakolade, S.B. Adebayo, J. Anyanti & A. Ankomah

Society for Family Health

Abuja, Nigeria

Email:- [email protected]

introduction
Introduction
  • The first HIV/AIDS case was discovered in Nigeria in 1986
  • A Rise in incidence in succeeding years became apparent
  • Major Impact:
    • Fear and denial
    • Stigma and discrimination
introduction 2
Introduction (2)
  • Prevention was holistic and multi-sectoral:
    • Strong political will at the 3 main levels of government: Federal, State and Local government
    • Involvement of the international community and donor agencies
introduction 3
Introduction (3)
  • Prevention …
    • Participation of Faith based Organisations
    • Use of Mass Media
    • Community Level Intervention
    • Involvement of Network of People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs)
introduction 4
Introduction (4)

Consequences of stigma & discrimination

  • People are unlikely to test for HIV
  • Failure to disclose status
  • Fear of rejection, disapproval and denial by loved ones
  • Unwillingness to adopt preventive behaviour
data methodology
Data & Methodology
  • Data were obtained from three waves of the National HIV/AIDS Reproductive Health Survey (NARHS) in Nigeria: 2003-2007
  • NARHS adopts a multi-stage probability cluster sampling technique
data methodology 2
Data & Methodology (2)
  • Samples were based on a nationally representative sample of females 15-49 yrs and males 15-64 yrs
  • Sample size was nationally weighted
  • Structured questionnaires were used
data methodology 3
Data & Methodology (3)
  • A total of 31,692 respondents were included in the analysis:
    • 10,090 in 2003,
    • 10,081 in 2005, and
    • 11,521 in 2007
analysis
Analysis
  • Dependent variable: Accepting attitudes towards people living with HIV/AIDS.
  • This was obtained based on UNAIDS composite index for S & D
analysis 2
Analysis (2)
  • Independent variables were categorised into:
    • demographic characteristics,
    • exposure to mass media messages on HIV/AIDS
    • perception about social support
analysis 3
Analysis (3)
  • Exposure was based on frequency and intensity of both viewership and listenership to HIV/AIDS messages prior to the surveys
  • Propensity scores of: ‘No’, ‘Low’ and ‘High’; were categorized
results
Results
  • Bivariate Analyses:
    • Increase in the level of accepting attitude towards PLWHA: 3.5% in 2003 to 9.0% in 2007 (P<0.0001)
    • Exposure to HIV mass media messages was positively associated with higher accepting attitude towards PLWHA (p<0.0001)
results 2
Results (2)
  • Multivariate Analyses:
    • Controlling for other covariates, multiple logistic regression was employed in a systematic manner
    • A significant positive association exist between level of accepting attitudes to PLWHA and exposure to HIV/AIDS mass media messages
results 3
Results (3)
  • Multivariate Analyses cont.
    • Those with higher levels of exposure are almost 3 times more likely to demonstrate tolerant attitudes compared with those with no exposure (OR=2.99, p<0.0001)
results 4
Results (4)
  • Multivariate Analyses cont.
    • Those with high level of social support are about 2 times more likely to show accepting attitude compared with those without social support (OR=2.1, p<0.05)
results 5
Results (5)
  • Multivariate Analyses cont.
    • Those exposed to the messages on all categories of mass media (radio, TV, bill-boards, etc) were 3 times more likely to demonstrate tolerant attitudes than those who were exposed to only one or two (OR=3.6, p<0.0001)
results 6
Results (6)
  • Those exposed to road show mass media were 1.4 times more likely to show accepting attitudes than those with no exposure to this mass media strategy (OR=1.4, P<0.0001)
results 7
Results (7)
  • Those exposed to the messages on radio were 3 times more likely to demonstrate tolerant attitudes than those who were not exposed (OR=3.6, p<0.0001)
results 8
Results (8)
  • Those exposure to long term HIV/AIDS messages on radio and television were I.8 times more likely to demonstrate accepting attitudes than those who were not exposed (OR=1.8, P<0.0001)
conclusions
Conclusions
  • Mass media was pivotal to programme design and implementation
  • HIV/AIDS messages was presented in an innovative manner
  • PLWHAs testimonials were a strong pull factor
conclusions 2
Conclusions (2)
  • Use of mass media increases accepting attitudes to PLWHAs in Nigeria
  • HIV/AIDS messages on mass media complement other effective intervention strategies
  • Communities should continue to provide ocial support at community, religion,
conclusions 21
Conclusions (2)
  • Communities and religion leaders should continue to provide social support to PLWHAs
  • This will encourage people’s desire for knowing ones’ HIV status and help reduce self denial
ad