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E151U: Housing and Urban Development Policy Housing Planning What is housing planning? Housing planning is the process by which government agencies determine the intensity and geographic arrangement of housing in a community; a type of land-use planning Other Types of Land Use

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E151U: Housing and Urban Development Policy

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what is housing planning
What is housing planning?

Housing planning is the process by which government agencies determine the intensity and geographic arrangement of housing in a community; a type of land-use planning

other types of land use
Other Types of Land Use
  • Shopping centers
  • Office and industrial employment centers
  • Transportation facilities
  • Agricultural land
  • Parks
current housing conditions in california
Current Housing Conditions in California
  • Population
    • Most populous state in the U.S. (~33.8 million, 2000)
    • Added over 4.1 million residents between 1990-2000
    • Residents moving to urban areas
  • Housing
    • Housing construction declined 1990-2000
    • Not kept pace with job and population growth
    • Affordable housing crunch
    • Skyrocketing housing prices
planning challenges
Planning Challenges
  • Increased housing demand, decreased supply
  • Where to house new residents?
  • Jobs/Housing Balance
  • Local control over housing (no regional coordination)
  • Growth Control/Management on the rise
  • Not in my Backyard (NIMBY) Syndrome
  • Affordable housing
major players in housing planning
Major Players in Housing Planning

Player #1: Legislative Branch

  • Congress (indirect role)
    • National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)—requires environmental review of all federal projects
    • Laws designed to protect endangered species and wetlands
  • California Legislature (direct)
    • created framework for local planning in California in last 80 years
      • First Subdivision Map Act in 1907
      • First General Plan law in 1927
      • California Environmental Quality Act in 1970s
major players cont
Major Players (cont.)

Player #2: Execute Branch

  • President, Governor, Federal and State Bureaucrats
    • Carry out the laws that the legislative branch makes

Ex. Endangered Species Act, Clean Water Act can stop any local development

    • Power to carry out laws depends on
      • Amount of authority and discretion that Congress or the legislature has granted them
      • Desire of the president or governor to enforce the laws
  • California State Bureaucrats
    • Generally defer to local authorities
major players cont8
Major Players (cont.)

Player #3: Judicial Branch

  • Sue, Sue, Sue!
  • 2 Categories of cases
    • Constitutional—plaintiff argues that local planning process has violated his or her constitutional right
    • Statutory—plaintiff argues that some state or federal law has been violated
      • Ex. Homeowners group argues that local zoning ordinance is not consistent with the local general plan
  • State and Federal Courts play an important role in planning
major players cont9
Major Players (cont.)

Wanna-be Player #4:

Regional “Governments”

  • Council of Governments (COG), Southern California Association of Governments (SCAG), Association of Bay Area Governments (ABAG), San Diego Association of Governments (SANDAG)
    • No official power
    • Provides useful housing research and information
    • See http://www.scag.ca.gov/
major players cont10
Major Players (cont.)

Player #5: Local Governments

  • Cities and Counties
  • 477 Cities
    • created by local citizens to serve their own purpose
    • Legislative body called City Council
  • 58 Counties
    • Creatures of the state
    • Purpose: implement state policy
    • Legislative body called Boards of Supervisors
  • Planning Commissions
    • power to make legally binding decisions
    • Local planning staff—tremendous influence over planning
government housing planning
Government Housing Planning

The HUD “Consolidated Plan” and the state “Housing Element” (part of General Plan)

  • Provide opportunities for planners to identify the housing needs in their community
  • Mobilize the resources necessary to address these needs
  • Required by HUD and the state to be eligible to receive many different kinds of funding programs
hud s consolidated plan
HUD’s Consolidated Plan

What is a consolidated plan?

A consolidated plan contains a 3-5 year strategic plan, an annual action plans, and annual performance reports

strategic plan
Strategic Plan
  • Housing, homeless, and community and economic development needs assessment
  • Housing market analysis
  • Long-term strategies to meet priority needs
action plan
Action Plan
  • Prioritizes projects and activities that jurisdictions will take on in the next year with HUD funds
  • Provides a basis for assessing performance
oc consolidated plan
OC Consolidated Plan


general plan
General Plan

The general plan lays out the future of a city’s development in general terms through a series of policy statements

contents of general plan
Contents of General Plan
  • Land-use element
  • Circulation element
  • Conservation element
  • Open-space element
  • Noise element
  • Safety element


  • Housing element
housing element
Housing Element

Enacted in 1969, the housing element law mandates that local governments adequately plan to meet the existing and projected housing needs of all economic segments of the community

housing element sections
Housing Element Sections
  • “Needs Assessment” and inventory of resources and constraints
  • Statement of community goals, quantified objectives, and policies relative to the maintenance, preservation, improvement and development of housing
  • Program that creates a 5-year schedule of actions to implement the polices and achieve the goals and objectives
needs assessment
Needs Assessment
  • Population and employment trends
  • Analysis and documentation of household characteristics, including overcrowding, and housing stock conditions
  • Inventory of land suitable for residential development
  • Analysis of potential and actual non-governmental constraints upon the maintenance, improvement, or development of housing for all income levels
  • Analysis of opportunities for energy conservation
  • Analysis of special needs (assisted housing developments, homeless, handicapped, elderly)
  • Assessment of “fair share” housing needs for low to moderate income households
statement of community goals
Statement of Community Goals
  • Goals relative to maintenance, improvement, and development of housing
  • Quantified objectives
5 year schedule
5-year Schedule
  • Identifies adequate sites which will be made available through appropriate zoning and development standards
  • Assists in the development of adequate housing to meet the needs of low and moderate income households
  • Addresses and removes governmental constraints to the maintenance, improvement, and development of housing
  • Conserves and improves the condition of the existing affordable housing stock
  • Promotes housing opportunities
  • Preserves assisted housing developments for low-income households