COMMUNICATION. Tuğçe AYDIN. COMMUNICATION. Communication is the process of sending and receiving messages between parties. Basic Model Of Communication. THE NATURE OF COMMUNICATION. 1-Senders and Receivers 2-Transmitters and Receptor 3-Messages and Channels
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Communication is the process of sending and receiving messages between parties
1-Senders and Receivers
2-Transmitters and Receptor
3-Messages and Channels
4-Decoding, Meaning, and Encoding
Each have goals and objectives
The sender may want to change the receiver’s mind
The receiver may not want to have his mind changed
is the equipment by which information is sent
Information can be sent verbally and nonverbally
are the vehicles by which information is communicated.
Decoding is the process of translating messages from their symbolic form into interpretations that can be understood.
Meaningsare the facts, ideas, feelings, reactions, or thoughts that exist whitin individuals, and act as a set of “filters” through which the decoded messages are interpreted.
Encoding is the process by which messages are put into symbolic form
is the process by which the receiver “reacts” to the sender’s message
It is necessary to let the sender know that the message was
It is impossible to avoid communicating
Communication is largely nonverbal
Context affects communication
Meanings are in people, not in words
Communication is irreversible
Noise affects communication
Communication is circular
Creating common goal is essential
Communication has effects
Basic ways in which people send and receive messages
Messages sent verbally are messsages expressed in words
The science of semantics
About 65 percent of the meanings people get from a communication
“your lips tell me ‘no,no’ but there is ‘yes,yes’ in your eyes”
increase the probabilty that communication will be successful
Appropriate language is the language that has been adapted to the receiver while retaining a naturalness with respect to the sender
Depends on the receiver (audience) and on the purpose.
Adjectives selected by both the participant and his or her peers
Represents traits of the participant of which both they and their peers are aware.
“I know my name, and so do you.”
Adjectives selected only by the participant, but not by any of their peers
Represents information about the participant of which their peers are unaware
“I have not told you, what one of my favorite ice cream flavors is.”
Adjectives that are not selected by the participant but only by their peers
“we could be eating at a restaurant, and I may have unknowingly gotten some food on my face. This information is in my blind quadrant because you can see it, but I cannot.”
Adjectives which were not selected by either the participant or their peers
“I may disclose a dream that I had, and as we both attempt to understand its significance, a new awareness may emerge, known to neither of us before the conversation took place.”
Ayşe Bilge ÇAKIR
National or Cultural Origin
Urban or Rural Residence
Major influence on the way we communicate with others.
When men and women work together in a group, men tend to be more assertive and self-confident.
Women are more likely than men to express their emotions, to reveal how they feel about a situation.
Young people and old people communicate in different ways.
We do tend to judge a statement by different standards if we know the speaker’s age.
A person’s age or gender is not important in judging the truth or wisdom of what that person says.
Their maturity, their educational backgrounds, and the different eras in which they grew up make a Generation Gap inevitable.
Our physical limitations are a screen through which we perceive things that exist in our environment.
Our perception is also limited by psychological screens that we have developed.
Choosing from among the many things within our range of perception those that we will notice, and block out the rest is called “Selective Perception”
A Motive is a Reason For Action!
The most strongest motivations are those that are most personal.
We are motivated by money, fame, power, love, status, security, skill, ambition...etc
It can be both positive or negative.
A closed way of thinking, especially aboutabstract topics, such as religion andpolitics.
A response pattern in which a person who follows this pattern sees a disagreement as a personal
More than just being selfish
Almost always obstacles to good communication!
Especially true if the emotion is
uncontrolled, unfocused, or misdirected.
It occurs where people
in andleaving for one
reason oranother, and
created by this
Distortion in communication comes from semantics- the use of words or expressions which have a different meaning for the sender or receiver.
Created when communicators use technical jargon- usage common to a particular field or specialization.
likely toparallel the
Imbalance or asymmetry
leads the high power
Use the word “is” carefully
Be sensitive to connotative meaning
Do not to overuse you or your
Count from 1 to 10
Recognize that you don’t know all the answers to all questions
Always remember that what others may not mean the way we think they mean it
Focus on common interests rather than differences
eliminating noise and
Understand the other’s
position by actively
arguing his position to
sending and receiving of messages in an organization
They should serve as;
Communication ethics is the consideration of the rightness of wrongness of a given communication act.
The smaller the span of control, the more communication access each employee will have to the supervisor.
(a) Tall Organization structure
(b) Flat Organization structure
Organizational theorists Tannenbaum and Schmidt, displays the range of communication styles
Conferring, you want to learn from them yet the control the interaction somewhat
Collaborating,you and your audience are working together to come up with the content
Do not need your audience’s opinions.
You want your audience to do something different