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COMMUNICATION. Tuğçe AYDIN. COMMUNICATION. Communication is the process of sending and receiving messages between parties. Basic Model Of Communication. THE NATURE OF COMMUNICATION. 1-Senders and Receivers 2-Transmitters and Receptor 3-Messages and Channels

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communication
COMMUNICATION

Tuğçe AYDIN

communication3
COMMUNICATION

Communication is the process of sending and receiving messages between parties

the nature of communication
THE NATURE OF COMMUNICATION

1-Senders and Receivers

2-Transmitters and Receptor

3-Messages and Channels

4-Decoding, Meaning, and Encoding

5-Feedback

senders receivers
Senders & Receivers

Each have goals and objectives

The sender may want to change the receiver’s mind

The receiver may not want to have his mind changed

transmitters and receptors
Transmitters and Receptors

is the equipment by which information is sent

Information can be sent verbally and nonverbally

messages and channels
Messages and Channels

are the vehicles by which information is communicated.

direct expressions

symbolic representations

decoding meaning and encoding
Decoding, Meaning, and Encoding

Decoding is the process of translating messages from their symbolic form into interpretations that can be understood.

Meaningsare the facts, ideas, feelings, reactions, or thoughts that exist whitin individuals, and act as a set of “filters” through which the decoded messages are interpreted.

Encoding is the process by which messages are put into symbolic form

feedback
Feedback

is the process by which the receiver “reacts” to the sender’s message

It is necessary to let the sender know that the message was

  • actually received,
  • encoded,
  • ascribed with the same meaning that the sender intended
basic principles of communication
BASIC PRINCIPLES OF COMMUNICATION

It is impossible to avoid communicating

Communication is largely nonverbal

Context affects communication

Meanings are in people, not in words

basic principles of communication cont d
BASIC PRINCIPLES OF COMMUNICATION (cont’d)

Communication is irreversible

Noise affects communication

Communication is circular

Creating common goal is essential

Communication has effects

verbal and nonverbal messages
VERBAL AND NONVERBAL MESSAGES

Basic ways in which people send and receive messages

verbal messages
Verbal Messages

Messages sent verbally are messsages expressed in words

The science of semantics

nonverbal messages
Nonverbal Messages

About 65 percent of the meanings people get from a communication

Voice

Physical Movements

Space

“your lips tell me ‘no,no’ but there is ‘yes,yes’ in your eyes”

adapting messsages to purpose and audience
ADAPTING MESSSAGES TO PURPOSE AND AUDIENCE

increase the probabilty that communication will be successful

Language

Format

Style

language
Language

Appropriate language is the language that has been adapted to the receiver while retaining a naturalness with respect to the sender

format
Format

Depends on the receiver (audience) and on the purpose.

style
Style

Formal/informal,

Simple/complex,

Natural/flamboyant

arena
Arena

Adjectives selected by both the participant and his or her peers

Represents traits of the participant of which both they and their peers are aware.

“I know my name, and so do you.”

fa ade
Façade

Adjectives selected only by the participant, but not by any of their peers

Represents information about the participant of which their peers are unaware

“I have not told you, what one of my favorite ice cream flavors is.”

blind spot
Blind Spot

Adjectives that are not selected by the participant but only by their peers

“we could be eating at a restaurant, and I may have unknowingly gotten some food on my face. This information is in my blind quadrant because you can see it, but I cannot.”

unknown
Unknown

Adjectives which were not selected by either the participant or their peers

“I may disclose a dream that I had, and as we both attempt to understand its significance, a new awareness may emerge, known to neither of us before the conversation took place.”

tangible differences
Tangible Differences

Gender

Age

Race

National or Cultural Origin

Socioeconomic Class

Education Level

Urban or Rural Residence

gender
GENDER

Major influence on the way we communicate with others.

When men and women work together in a group, men tend to be more assertive and self-confident.

Women are more likely than men to express their emotions, to reveal how they feel about a situation.

slide36
AGE

Young people and old people communicate in different ways.

We do tend to judge a statement by different standards if we know the speaker’s age.

A person’s age or gender is not important in judging the truth or wisdom of what that person says.

slide37

Their maturity, their educational backgrounds, and the different eras in which they grew up make a Generation Gap inevitable.

intangible differences
Intangible Differences

Perception

Motivation

Tunnel Vision

Ego

Defensiveness

Negative

Emotions

perception
PERCEPTION

Our physical limitations are a screen through which we perceive things that exist in our environment.

Our perception is also limited by psychological screens that we have developed.

Choosing from among the many things within our range of perception those that we will notice, and block out the rest is called “Selective Perception”

selective perception
Selective Perception
  • Allows us not only to block out things that are there, but also to see more things than are there.
  • Leads us to make our own reality!
  • Most clearly seen in the human tendency to stereotype others.
motivation
MOTIVATION

A Motive is a Reason For Action!

The most strongest motivations are those that are most personal.

We are motivated by money, fame, power, love, status, security, skill, ambition...etc

It can be both positive or negative.

tunnel vision
TUNNEL VISION

A closed way of thinking, especially aboutabstract topics, such as religion andpolitics.

  • The person with tunnel vision is one who has firmly fixed ideas
  • The opposite side is open-mindedness
  • Person with tunnel visionhas attitude seems to say; “I’ve already made up my mind, Don’t confuse me with the facts!!!”
ego defensiveness
EGO DEFENSIVENESS

A response pattern in which a person who follows this pattern sees a disagreement as a personal

attact .

A self-centeredcommunication

More than just being selfish

negative emotions
NEGATIVE EMOTIONS

Almost always obstacles to good communication!

Especially true if the emotion is

uncontrolled, unfocused, or misdirected.

distortion barriers
DISTORTION BARRIERS
  • Distractions
  • Semantic Problems
  • Absence Of Feedback
  • Climate
  • Status And Power Differences
d i stract i ons
Distractions

It occurs where people

are constantlycoming

in andleaving for one

reason oranother, and

experincedthe

frustration thatis

created by this

distractingtraffic flow.

semant i c problems
Semantic Problems

Distortion in communication comes from semantics- the use of words or expressions which have a different meaning for the sender or receiver.

Created when communicators use technical jargon- usage common to a particular field or specialization.

status and power d i fferences
Status And Power Differences

Differences in

communications are

likely toparallel the

differences inpower.

Imbalance or asymmetry

innegotiating power

leads the high power

partyto perform

significantlybetter than

thelow powerparty.

guidelines for effective communication
GUIDELINES FOR EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION

Be Exact

Use the word “is” carefully

Avoid Overgeneralization

Be sensitive to connotative meaning

Do not to overuse you or your

Count from 1 to 10

guidelines for effective communication51
GUIDELINES FOR EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION

Recognize that you don’t know all the answers to all questions

Always remember that what others may not mean the way we think they mean it

Focus on common interests rather than differences

Think positive

improving communication effectiveness in negotiation
IMPROVING COMMUNICATION EFFECTIVENESS IN NEGOTIATION

QUESTIONING

For clarifying

communications, and

eliminating noise and

distortion .

ACTIVE LISTENING/REFLECTING

ROLE REVERSAL

Understand the other’s

position by actively

arguing his position to

his satisfaction.

slide54
BUSINESS COMMUNICATION

Ayşen ERKILIÇ

what is business communication
What is “Business Communication”?

sending and receiving of messages in an organization

slide56
Intentional

Unintentional

slide57
Characteristics of Business Communication
  • Complex,
  • Competitive,
  • Group oriented,
  • Task oriented,
  • Data based .
slide58
Carter and Huzan(1981), studied the nature of a business

Telephone

People-to-people communication

Typing

People-to-paper communication

Copying

Paper-to-paper transfer

Storing

Paper-to-file transfer

Information retrieval

Files-to-people transfer

slide59
Employees Responsibility

They should serve as;

Interpreter

Humanizer

Promoter

slide60
Communication Skills

Listening

Writing

Interviewing

Group discussion

Interpersonal communication

Public speaking

Nonverbal communication

Problem solving

Telephone communication

communication ethics
Communication Ethics

Communication ethics is the consideration of the rightness of wrongness of a given communication act.

communication networks cont d
Communication Networks(cont’d)
  • Line networks normally involve superior-subordinate relationships.
  • Staff relationships between the members of an organization are most often advisory in nature.
formal networks
Formal Networks
  • Formal networks are legitimate and often indicated by an organization chart that displays who answers to whom.
  • Formal networks indicate a unity of command.
  • Formal communication networks contain more of the written, predictable, and routine communications
informal networks
Informal Networks
  • Informal networks are unofficial channels through which information passes in an organization.
  • Informal networks are faster, richer, and often more accurate, and communication is more likely to be face-to-face.
span of control
Span Of Control

The smaller the span of control, the more communication access each employee will have to the supervisor.

grapevines
Grapevines

Conrad (1990);

  • “Because using formal communication networks takes so much time and effort, people may have choose to not communicate at all if they have no formal channels available.
  • Even ‘gossip’ and ‘rumors’ usually provide accurate information”. Such networks are called grapevines.
information flow in business organizations
Information Flow in Business Organizations

(a) Tall Organization structure

(b) Flat Organization structure

information flow in business organizations70
Information Flow in Business Organizations
  • Downward communication occurs when a manager or supervisor sends a message to one or more subordinates.
  • Upward communication occurs when messages flow from subordinates to managers or from supervisors to executives.
  • Horizontal communication occurs between people at the same level, or between people at corresponding levels in different divisions.
information flow in business organizations71
Information Flow in Business Organizations

Organizational theorists Tannenbaum and Schmidt, displays the range of communication styles

  • The more you control, the less you involve;
  • The more you involve, the less you control.
slide72

Conferring, you want to learn from them yet the control the interaction somewhat

Collaborating,you and your audience are working together to come up with the content

Instructing, explaining.

Do not need your audience’s opinions.

persuading

You want your audience to do something different

slide73
Thanks For

Attendance…!!!