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CIS 153 Networking Essentials Week 3 – Chapter 3 From last week A few of you are not turning in your quizzes online Student success form Read the book! Article Reviews Select an article from a computer journal or magazine about Networking

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CIS 153 Networking Essentials

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cis 153 networking essentials

CIS 153Networking Essentials

Week 3 – Chapter 3

from last week
From last week
  • A few of you are not turning in your quizzes online
  • Student success form
  • Read the book!
article reviews
Article Reviews
  • Select an article from a computer journal or magazine about Networking
  • Topics listed are just to give you ideas – there are certainly more possibilities
  • Written report should be one to two pages (please attach article with report or include link.)
  • Must present orally for 3-5 minutes
  • Be ready for questions
what is
What is…
  • Ad-Hoc and Infrastructure Mode?
  • Access Point?
  • What does a client do?
  • What does a server do?
chapter 3 networking media
Chapter 3 – Networking Media
  • Bandwidth Rating - Cables can only carry a limited amount of information at a time
    • Common bandwidth ratings are Category 3, Category 5, Category 6 (higher the better)
  • Maximum segment length (attenuation) – Can only carry a signal so far
    • Like how DSL is distance limited
general cable characteristics
General Cable Characteristics
  • Maximum number of segments per network (latency) – If you have too many routers and switches between end points the network will become slow or unusable (timeout) // Minimize hops
  • Interference – Avoid placing cable near interference sources (motors, transformers, fluorescent lights, and other electrical activity)
    • Many cable types are shielded to some extent
    • Twisted Pair
general cable characteristics7
General Cable Characteristics
  • Plenium-rated – Whether the plastic cladding is fire-rated to be placed in an office’s false ceiling
    • Otherwise conduit is needed
  • Bend radius – How far you can bend a cable before you break it
    • Especially problematic for fiber-optic and coax
baseband broadband
Baseband - Broadband
  • A baseband signal uses the entire wire to transmit or receive
    • One way at a time (half-duplex)
    • How most LAN’s work
  • In broadband multiple channels are modulated onto one wire
    • How most broadband internet works
cable types
Cable Types
  • Twisted Pair
    • Individual insulated copper wires are twisted to protect the signals from interference
  • Unshilded twisted pair (UTP) just has the twists in it
    • Prone to crosstalk
  • Shielded twisted pair (STP) has an extra foil shield between the wires and the external sheath
common sights in twisted pair installations
Common sights in Twisted Pair Installations
  • Cables use RJ-45 plugs
  • Patch panels are often used in wiring closets to organize wiring
  • See table 3-1 on p.83
making twisted pair cable connections
Making Twisted-Pair cable connections
  • Wire cutters
  • Wire stripper
  • Crimp tool
  • RJ-45 plugs
fiber optic
Fiber optic
  • Virtually immune to electronic eavesdropping
  • Extremely high bandwidth (up to 200Gbps)
  • Extremely long runs (miles)
  • Each light conducting core can only send signals in one direction
    • Cables contain multiple strands-each of those strands are within an inner sheath
    • Usually all of those are combined within an outer sheath (or jacket)
fiber optic connectors
Fiber Optic connectors
  • Multiple connector types are available for Fiber-optic
  • Straight tip (ST) – used most often in backbone Ethernet networks
    • ST locks onto the jack when twisted
  • Straight connection (SC) – Push on one piece component (has a notch to ensure correct orientation)
    • easy to install, less space for attachment, can be used when splicing
fiber optic connectors19
Fiber Optic connectors
  • Locking Connection (LC) – push on and pull off using a latching mechanism similar to RJ-45. Half the size of SC
  • Medium interface connector (MIC) – Used in FDDI, one piece
  • Mechanical transfer registered jack (MT-RJ) – looks similar to RJ, high density, two fiber in one jack, ease of installation
fiber optic installation
Fiber Optic installation
  • Fiber is still more difficult to install, but much easier than it used to be
  • Becoming almost as easy as copper
  • Now being used almost exclusively for backbone connections
single or multimode
Single or Multimode?
  • Single-mode fiber optic cables
    • Only one glass fiber at the core
    • Cost more
    • Works with laser-based emitters
    • Used for long distances
  • Multimode fiber optic cables
    • Two or more glass fibers at the core
    • Cost less
    • Works with LED’s (light emitting diode)
    • Shorter distance
which should i choose
Which should I choose?
  • Some ways to sort out which cable technologies to use
  • Bandwidth – How much do you need?
  • Budget – How much do you have?
  • Capacity – How much traffic?
    • You may want to separate the light and medium users from the heavy network users
    • You will want to separate your backbone traffic from your local traffic
which should i choose24
Which should I choose?
  • Environmental considerations
    • An environment that is electrically noisy or requires high data security will likely dictate fiber above other considerations
  • Placement – How will you get the cables there?
    • With more difficult cable runs TP or wireless becomes more desirable
  • Distance
  • Local building and fire codes
  • Existing cable plant
which should i choose25
Which should I choose?
  • Where money is no object and speed or long distance is greatly needed
    • Fiber
  • Where quick, cheap, and easy cable based networking
    • Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP)
  • Combination Fiber/UPT
    • Fiber backbone and unshielded twisted pair to switches and devices
  • Mobility is king or wiring is difficult
    • Wireless
structured cabling
Structured Cabling
  • Structured cabling is cabling organized in a logical and tidy manner
  • Usually include:
  • Work area (where computer is)
  • Horizontal wiring (run from wall jack to telco closet)
  • Telecommunications Closet
    • Connects to computer equipment in nearby area (in smaller networks also the entrance facility and sometimes the equipment room)
structured cabling27
Structured Cabling
  • Equipment rooms – where the servers and other major network equipment resides
    • May be main cross-connect for backbone cabling for the entire network
    • Might connect backbone between buildings
  • Backbone cabling (vertical cabling)
    • interconnects telco closets and equipment rooms.
    • Usually fiber but UTP ok if less than 90m
structured cabling28
Structured Cabling
  • Entrance Facility – LAN meets world
  • What’s it good for?
    • Temporary connections to existing wired networks
    • Backup connectivity to existing wired networks
    • Extend the network beyond the bounds wire or fiber in existing buildings
    • Allow mobility
  • See p.93
wireless characteristics
Wireless characteristics
  • Quick note: an access point connects both wired and wireless networks. It does not have to be a router.
  • Higher frequency = lower distance
  • Higher frequency = higher bandwidth
  • Higher frequency technologies often use tight beam broadcasts and require line of sight
wireless technologies
Wireless technologies
  • Infrared – usually to sync PDA’s with computers or print to printers
    • Not used often except in specialized situations
  • Laser – used between buildings
    • Susceptible to rain fade
    • Line of sight (good and bad)
  • Narrowband (single-frequency) radio
  • Spread-spectrum – frequency hopping
wi fi
  • 802.11b – 11Mbps
    • Most commonly found
  • 802.11g – 54Mbps
    • Most common higher speed system
  • 802.11a – 54Mbps
    • Lives at 5Ghz (less interference)
    • More expensive
    • Not very common
  • MIMO – 108Mbps
    • Soon to be 802.11n
    • Backwards compatible with b and g
wireless bridges
Wireless bridges
  • Connects two offices
  • Uses laser or broadcast technologies
  • You own the equipment not the telco
  • This type is unregulated (no FCC fee)
wimax 802 16 wireless man
WiMax 802.16 (Wireless MAN)
  • Two versions – fixed and mobile
  • Envisioned to provide Internet access without needing the cable or phone companies
  • Can deliver up to 70Mbps up to 30 miles
    • More likely speeds for an individual subscriber would be similar to current broadband and at a distance of approximately 10 miles
wimax 802 16 wireless man36
WiMax 802.16 (Wireless MAN)
  • Fixed is here now
  • Mobile can not transmit as far as fixed can
  • Mobile allows roaming
  • Mobile became a standard about 9 months ago
  • Intel wants to integrate WiMax mobile in laptops (get internet access across vast geographic areas)
  • Sprint wants to implement it nationwide
  • Microwave
  • Higher transmission rates
  • Requires FCC approval
    • 5.8 GHz unlicensed
  • Expensive
  • Line of sight
  • Microwave can be terrestrial (land based) or satellite
  • Terrestrial can span contenental distances through relay towers
    • These relay towers are often placed on mountain tops
    • Across sparse areas this can be cheaper than laying wire
  • Satellite aims high at a geosynchronous satellite (22,300 Miles above earth)
    • Can have a latency of half a second between request and response
hands on exercises
Hands-On Exercises
  • In groups
    • Hands-On Project 3-3, 3-5, 3-6