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BRAZIL. South America. BRAZIL. Brazilia – Oscar Niemeyer, 1956-1960. NATIONAL CONGRESS. Brazil – Oscar Niemeyer, 1956-1960. MUSIC. Samba Bossa Nova MPB Tropicalismo – rock, political Tropicalia (tropicalismo + psychedelia) Earlier forms – choros (instrumental) Classical. SAMBA.

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Presentation Transcript
  • Samba
  • Bossa Nova
  • MPB
  • Tropicalismo – rock, political
  • Tropicalia (tropicalismo + psychedelia)
  • Earlier forms – choros (instrumental)
  • Classical
  • Very general term
  • Roots in Carnival
  • 1st recording 1917
  • 1st “school” 1930s
  • Percussion
  • Cavaquinho – a small guitar-like inst
The cavaquinho is a small string instrument of the European guitar family with four wires or gut strings.
  • It is also called machimbo, machim, machete (in the Portuguese Atlantic islands and Brazil), manchete or marchete, braguinha or braguinho, and cavaco.


Vai Mesmo (Go, Then)

from Brazil Roots Samba CD

the cu ca
  • A very distinctive percussion instrument!

- a friction drum


Peso No Balanca (Weight in the Balance)

from Brazil Roots Samba CD

other percussion
Other percussion
  • snare drum (caixa)
  • repinique
  • surdo
  • 300-400 together!
  • Carnival Bateria
many types more mellow
Many types, more mellow
  • Foundation for even lighter style, BOSSA NOVA
  • BOSSA NOVA introduced to the world by film Black Orpheus
bossa nova
  • João Gilberto, Astrud Gilberto
  • “The Girl from Ipanema" ("Garota de Ipanema")
  • a well known bossa nova song
  • a worldwide hit in the mid-1960s
  • written in 1962, with music by Antonio Carlos Jobim and Portuguese lyrics by Vinicius de Moraes (who also wrote the play and screenplay for Black Orpheus).
bossa nova15
  • Example bossa nova song: “Off-Key” or "Slightly Out of Tune," in Portuguese as "Desafinado," composed by Antonio Carlos Jobim with lyrics by Newton Mendonça, 1959
bossa nova saudade
BOSSA NOVA & “saudade”
  • If not totally sentimental, lyrics have a special kind of melancholy
  • Example from the film, Black Orpheus:“Sadness has no end; happiness does.”
  • a political turn in Brazilian popular music
  • 1964 military coup
  • Chico Buarque
    • exiled briefly for controversial play,returns in 1970
    • Voted ‘Brazil’s musician of the century’ in 1999 magazine poll; not as famous in the US
calice chico buarque
“Calice” - Chico Buarque

Father, take away from me this goblet

of wine tinted red with blood.

How can I drink from this bitter drink

Inhale the pain, swallow the drudgery.

Even if the mouth is shut, the heart still remains

Silence isn't heard in the city.

What good is it to be son of the saint (female)

It would be better to be son of the other (this breaks the rhyme scheme, the most obvious rhyme here being with "son-of-a-bitch")

Another reality less dead

So many lies, so much brute force.

Lyrics (in Portuguese)

Pai, afasta de mim esse cálice

De vinho tinto de sangue.

Como beber dessa bebida amarga

Tragar a dor, engolir a labuta.

Mesmo calada a boca, resta o peito

Silêncio na cidade não se escuta.

De que me vale ser filho da santa

Melhor seria ser filho da outra

Outra realidade menos morta

Tanta mentira, tanta força bruta.


caetano veloso
Caetano Veloso
  • Political lyrics (jailed in late 1960s)
  • actively internationalist in musical style
  • Surrealist lyrics


“Alegria, Alegria,” 1967

- simple major chords

“O Estrangiero” 1989

- ‘intellectual autobiography’

gilberto gil
Gilberto Gil
  • Jailed and exiled in the 60s & 70s
  • Minister of Culture, 2002
  • Tropicalia Gilberto Gil 1972
  • roots music, too“So quero um xodo”(forro)
  • Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva
  • Current president of Brazil
  • Elected in 2002 & re-elected in 2006
  • born to a poor, illiterate peasant family in 1945
  • worked in metals industry & was active the union
  • Goals are to reduce poverty & hunger
  • Brazil no longer a debtor nation – now lends money
heitor villa lobos 1887 1959
Heitor Villa-Lobos (1887-1959)
  • composed Bachianas Brazileiras (No. 5 is most famous; 1938/45)
  • conflict & resolution of “Brazilian or European?” identity question
  • early years: acclaimed in France, rejected at home
  • later: too conservative for Europe, hero at home
villa lobos bachianas brasileiras
Villa-Lobos: Bachianas Brasileiras
  • Bach’s music is part of a “universal folkloric source”
  • Villa-Lobos: Bachianas Brasileiras – tributes to Bach in a Brazilian Style
  • 9 suites composed 1930-1945
  • Most famous: No. 5
    • Two movements: aria & dance (martelo)
villa lobos ch ros no 10
Villa-Lobos: Chôros No. 10
  • Choro – urban folk music, ("cry" in Portuguese)
  • “native” music
  • Collage – similar to European music at the time (composed in Paris)
  • 1926
  • Big orchestral work reflecting many contemporary European influences

Choro ("cry" in Portuguese), traditionally called chorinho ("little cry"), is a Brazilian popular music style. Its origins are in 19th century Rio de Janeiro. Originally choro was played by a trio of flute, guitar and cavaquinho (a small chordophone with four strings).


a generic term now used to represent the accordion-driven sound of Brazil's northeastern Ceará and Pernambuco states source

brazil summary 1
Brazil Summary (1)
  • Samba – broad term for a style
    • Percussive style associated with Carnival
    • Song style
  • Samba roots in poor lower class
  • Becomes national culture
  • Sophisticated, trained composers work in samba and Bossa Nova
brazil summary 2
Brazil Summary (2)
  • Political uses of music
    • Nationalism (Vargas, govt sponsorship of samba schools)
    • Brazilian cultural identity (Villa-Lobos)
    • Protest (example: “Calice” by Chico Buarque)
    • Reconciliation of class, race and regional issues (example: Gilberto Gil, once jailed and exiled, now a cabinet minister)