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Bicycles and Bicycling - Introduction History evolution of bicycles Cycling as a sport and as an exercise Reference: Faria and Cavanagh. The physiology and biomechanics of cycling Muscles and movements Physiological demands Design objectives: Distribute rider’s weight appropriately

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bicycles and bicycling introduction
Bicycles and Bicycling - Introduction
  • History evolution of bicycles
  • Cycling as a sport and as an exercise
    • Reference: Faria and Cavanagh. The physiology and biomechanics of cycling
    • Muscles and movements
    • Physiological demands
  • Design objectives:
    • Distribute rider’s weight appropriately
    • Ensure transfer of power from rider to machine
    • Points of contact must fit the rider:
      • handlebars
      • seat
      • pedals
anatomy of diamond frame
Anatomy of Diamond Frame
  • Important parts: Front triangle (tubes), rear triangle (stays), fork, lugs, bottom bracket, head tube
  • Types of bicycles: (1) Road bike (10-speed) - touring, racing, and sport; (2) mountain, or all-terrain; and (3) hybrid
other frame types ladie s frame
Other Frame Types; :Ladie’s Frame

Top tube is sloped considerably

design features height
Design Features - Height
  • Height of bottom bracket (bike’s center of gravity)
    • Lower for more stability
    • Higher for more pedal clearance
  • Height measurements determine size of rider
  • Frame size - length of seat tube and top tube
design features bike length
Design Features - Bike Length
  • Wheelbase length - (Fig 12.6)
    • Shorter for quicker response, longer for more stability (varies from 38 to 44 in)
  • Chainstay length
    • Shorter chainstays are used on racing bikes for more direct transfer of power
design features frame angles
Design Features: Frame Angles
  • Head tube - steeper for rougher ride, more efficient power transfer; shallower for handling ease and shock absorbing, but less responsive
  • Rake (amount of bend in fork blades) and trail affect steering stability. More trail equals more stability
design features on different types of bicycles
Design Features on Different Types of Bicycles
  • Road bicycles (10-speeds)
    • Touring, or comfort - long wheelbase, shallow angles, fair amount of trail (21 speeds)
    • Racing - short wheelbase, steep angles, little trail

(18 gears)

    • Sport/triathlon and cross bikes - in between (100 or more miles at high speed)
  • Mountain, or all-terrain
    • Fat, knobby tires, upright, sturdy frame, suspension systems
  • Hybrid - Cross between road and mountain
bicycles frame materials
Bicycles - Frame Materials
  • Important characteristics are elasticity, stiffness, and strength (esp st/wt ratio)
  • Butted and splined tubing - thicker at ends than in the middle, with ribs inside
  • Steel - most widely used on cheaper bikes. Reliable, inexpensive, durable, predictable in handling - but is relatively heavy
  • Aluminum alloys - light, shock absorbent, comfortable. Newer alloys have improved properties of stiffness and strength (e.g., zirconium on trek bikes (trekbikes.com)
  • Titanium alloys - stiff, strong, lighter, more shock absorbent - but is expensive hard to weld and hard to machine
  • Composites - greatest strength/wt & stiffness/wt ratio - but expensive, bonding problems. Used mainly in front fork and stays. May fail catastrophically in other areas of frame.
tubing design and construction methods
Tubing design and Construction Methods
  • Lugs no longer used:
  • Laser mitering
  • Butted tubes – varying wall thickness
  • Splined tubes
  • Diameter and shape changes
suspension systems
Suspension systems
  • Front, rear, and seat
  • Simple spring
  • Air coil/springing systems
    • Travel and stiffness may vary
bicycle accessories
Bicycle Accessories
  • Drive Train -Crank, chainrings (front driving cogs), freewheel, derailleurs (indexed and automatic shifting are recent innovations)
  • Shoes and pedals - clipless or with clips?
accessories cont d
Accessories (cont’d)
  • Rims, tires, brakes
  • Saddles
  • Stems & handlebars
accessories cont d20
Accessories (cont’d)
  • Helmets
  • Gloves, shorts
websites on bicycles
Websites on Bicycles
  • How to select a bicycle http://www.primusweb.com/fitnesspartner/library/equipment/equip.htm
  • Manufacturer’s websites
    • Trek
    • Schwinn
    • Specialized
assignment for thursday 10 21
Assignment for Thursday, 10/21
  • Go to one of the bicycle manufacturer’s websites (slide 23) and select a bicycle to suit your purposes
  • Read article on suspension systems and submit 2 questions for clarification or discussion
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