Fisiologia do Sistema Endócrino
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Fisiologia do Sistema Endócrino Regulação endócrina da Calcemia Profa. Adjunto do Depto. Ciências Fisiológicas-CCB-UFSC Como citar este documento:

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Fisiologia do Sistema Endócrino

Regulação endócrina da Calcemia

Profa. Adjunto do Depto. Ciências Fisiológicas-CCB-UFSC

Como citar este documento:

PINTO, Cristina Maria Henrique. Fisiologia Humana: Endocrinofisiologia. Disponível em: <http://www.cristina.prof.ufsc.br>.Acesso em: coloque a data aqui


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ESQUEMAS PARA FACILITAR O ESTUDO E O ACOMPANHAMENTO DE MINHAS AULAS

Bibliografia recomendada

Livros-textos:

“Fisiologia” Costanzo, 2007, 3ª Ed. (Ed. Elsevier)

“Fundamentos de Fisiologia”, Berne et al, 2006, 4ª Ed.(Ed. Elsevier)

“Berne & Levy: Fisiologia” Koeppen & Stanton, 2009, 6ª Ed. (Ed. Elsevier)

“Fisiologia” Berne et al., 2004, 5ª Ed. (Ed. Elsevier)

“Tratado de Fisiologia Médica” Guyton & Hall, 2006, 11ª Ed. (Ed. Elsevier)

“Fisiologia” Aires, M. M., 2008, 3ª Ed. (Ed. Guanabara Koogan)

“Fisiologia: texto e atlas” Despopoulos e Silbernagl, 2003 (Ed. Artmed)


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AS FIGURAS AQUI UTILIZADAS FORAM RETIRADAS DE WEB MINHAS AULASSITES E, QUANDO POSSÍVEL, SÃO SEGUIDAS PELO ENDEREÇO NA INTERNET.

PARA CONSULTA A TEXTOS E OUTROS

RECURSOS ONLINE, VEJA EM:

http://www.cristina.prof.ufsc.br

PRESERVE O DIREITO AUTORAL CITANDO A FONTE.


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Fisiologia do Sistema Endócrino MINHAS AULAS

REGULAÇÃO ENDÓCRINA DA

CALCEMIA

(níveis plasmáticos de cálcio)

Hormônios:

Paratireoideano (PTH)

Calcitriol e

Calcitonina


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Órgãos e mecanismos envolvidos na regulação da Calcemia MINHAS AULAS(níveis de cálcio no sangue)

Os números referem-se aos níveis da cálcio diários em humanos. Repare o balanço entre a ingestão e a excreção de cálcio assim como para a remoção e reposição de cálcio nos ossos (remodelagem óssea).Fig. 42-1 Berne et al., 2004


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Visão geral do intercâmbio de cálcio... MINHAS AULAS

... entre diferentes compartimentos teciduais em uma pessoa com ingestão de 1.000mg de Cálcio por dia. Grande parte do cálcio ingerido é normalmente eliminada pelas fezes, embora os rins tenham a capacidade de excretar quantidades abundantes de cálcio por meio da redução. Guyton e Hall, 2006


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Órgãos e hormônios envolvidos na regulação da calcemia MINHAS AULAS

http://cwx.prenhall.com/bookbind/pubbooks/silverthorn2/


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Paratireóides MINHAS AULAS

Paratormônio

(PTH)

Glândulas Paratireóides

Secreção de Paratormônio

extraído, enquanto disponível, de: http://www.owensboro.kctcs.edu/gcaplan/anat2/Study%20Guides/APII%20Endocrine%20Glands.htm


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Regulação da calcemia pelo Paratormônio (PTH) MINHAS AULAS

http://cwx.prenhall.com/bookbind/pubbooks/silverthorn2/


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Regulação da calcemia pelo Calcitriol MINHAS AULAS

http://cwx.prenhall.com/bookbind/pubbooks/silverthorn2/


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Dietary Sources. Only a few foods naturally contain significant amounts of vitamin D, including fatty fish and fish oils. Other dietary sources include fortified milk and margarine, liver, butter, cream and egg yolks.

Biossíntese do Calcitriol

(Hormônio derivado da Vitamina D ou

1,25(OH)2-Vitamina D)

Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that exists in various forms. Some forms are relatively inactive in the body, and have limited ability to function as a vitamin. Exposure to sunlight is an important source of vitamin D. Ultraviolet (UV) rays from sunlight trigger vitamin D synthesis in the skin. The liver and kidney help convert vitamin D to its active hormone form, also called CALCITRIOL.

+ PTH

+ PTH

Veja mais em: http://arbl.cvmbs.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/endocrine/thyroid/calcium.html


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Regulação da calcemia pela Calcitonina significant amounts of vitamin D, including fatty fish and fish oils. Other dietary sources include fortified milk and margarine, liver, butter, cream and egg yolks.

Parafollicular cells are also called "C cells". 

They are found in the interstitial spaces outside the thyroid follicles in the middle third of the lateral lobes.  As all endocrine cells, they lie next to capillaries so they can secrete their hormone into the bloodstream. 

The hormone they produce is "CALCITONIN".  They respond to high blood levels of calcium.  When calcium levels are too high, they secrete calcitonin and this hormone inhibits osteoclastic activity. What is the function of osteoclasts? Osteoclastic activity releases calcium that goes into the blood stream for use by the cells in the body. How does it do this?

Veja em: http://www.cytochemistry.net/Endocrine_System/thyroid_and_parathyroid.htm#Locate


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Alguns conceitos sobre fisiologia do tecido ósseo significant amounts of vitamin D, including fatty fish and fish oils. Other dietary sources include fortified milk and margarine, liver, butter, cream and egg yolks.

Remodelagem óssea

extraído, quando disponível, de: http://www.medes.fr/Eristo/Osteoporosis/BoneRemodeling.html


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Remodelagem óssea significant amounts of vitamin D, including fatty fish and fish oils. Other dietary sources include fortified milk and margarine, liver, butter, cream and egg yolks.

Process of bone remodeling. Signals carried by canalicular and syncytial routes from interior osteocytes, and endocrine signals to resting osteoblasts and lining cells generate local paracrine cytokine signals to nearby osteoclasts and osteoclast precursors. Osteoclasts also recruit their own precursors by paracrine signals. The osteoclasts resorb an area of mineralized bone, and local macrophages complete the clean-up of dissolved elements. The process then reverses to formation as osteoblast precursors are recruited to the site and differentiate into active osteoblasts. These lay down new organic matrix and mineralize it. Thus, new bone replaces the previously resorbed mature bone. Levy et al., 2006


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AS CÉLULAS ENVOLVIDAS NA REMODELAGEM ÓSSEA significant amounts of vitamin D, including fatty fish and fish oils. Other dietary sources include fortified milk and margarine, liver, butter, cream and egg yolks.

Progenitoras da matriz óssea

precursor de osteoblastos

precursor de osteoclastos

Osteoblastos iniciam a formação óssea

Osteoclasto

Osteoblastos

Formação de osso novo

Resorção óssea

Osteócito

Development of osteoblasts and osteoclasts from bone marrow progenitors. Factors affecting the development and function of these cells, bone resorption by osteoclast and new bone formation by osteoblasts. Abbreviations: GH: growth hormone, IGF: insulin like growth factors,PTH: parathyroid hormone Valsamis et al. 2006. http://www.nutritionandmetabolism.com/content/3/1/36#


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AS CÉLULAS ENVOLVIDAS NA REMODELAGEM ÓSSEA significant amounts of vitamin D, including fatty fish and fish oils. Other dietary sources include fortified milk and margarine, liver, butter, cream and egg yolks.

Progenitoras da matriz óssea

precursor de osteoblastos

precursor de osteoclastos

osteócitosmonitoram estresse mecânico ósseo

Osteoclasto

Osteoblastos

Formação de osso novo

Resorção óssea

Osteócito

Development of osteoblasts and osteoclasts from bone marrow progenitors. Factors affecting the development and function of these cells, bone resorption by osteoclast and new bone formation by osteoblasts. Abbreviations: GH: growth hormone, IGF: insulin like growth factors,PTH: parathyroid hormone Valsamis et al. 2006. http://www.nutritionandmetabolism.com/content/3/1/36


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AS CÉLULAS ENVOLVIDAS NA REMODELAGEM ÓSSEA significant amounts of vitamin D, including fatty fish and fish oils. Other dietary sources include fortified milk and margarine, liver, butter, cream and egg yolks.

Progenitoras da matriz óssea

precursor de osteoblastos

precursor de osteoclastos

osteoclastos reabsorvem osso

Osteoclasto

Osteoblastos

Formação de osso novo

Resorção óssea

Osteócito

Development of osteoblasts and osteoclasts from bone marrow progenitors. Factors affecting the development and function of these cells, bone resorption by osteoclast and new bone formation by osteoblasts. Abbreviations: GH: growth hormone, IGF: insulin like growth factors,PTH: parathyroid hormone Valsamis et al. 2006. http://www.nutritionandmetabolism.com/content/3/1/36 #


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As células no microambiente ósseo significant amounts of vitamin D, including fatty fish and fish oils. Other dietary sources include fortified milk and margarine, liver, butter, cream and egg yolks.

extraído, enquanto disponível, de: http://www.abdn.ac.uk/medicine_therapeutics


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Formação e resorção óssea significant amounts of vitamin D, including fatty fish and fish oils. Other dietary sources include fortified milk and margarine, liver, butter, cream and egg yolks.

extraído, enquanto disponível, de: http://www.abdn.ac.uk/medicine_therapeutics


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  • O ciclo da remodelagem óssea significant amounts of vitamin D, including fatty fish and fish oils. Other dietary sources include fortified milk and margarine, liver, butter, cream and egg yolks.Two main types of cells are responsible for bone renewal: the osteoblasts involved in bone formation and the osteoclasts involved in bone resorption. 

  • Activation: Preosteoclasts are stimulated and differentiated under the influence of cytokine and growth factors to mature into active osteoclasts. 

  • Resorption: Osteoclasts digest mineral matrix, old bone. 

  • Reversal: End of resorption  

  • Formation: Osteoblasts are responsible for bone matrix synthesis (collagen). Two other non-collagenous proteins are also formed: ostocalcin and osteonectin. 

extraído, enquanto disponível, de: http://www.medes.fr/Eristo/Osteoporosis/BoneRemodeling.html


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O ciclo da remodelagem óssea significant amounts of vitamin D, including fatty fish and fish oils. Other dietary sources include fortified milk and margarine, liver, butter, cream and egg yolks.

extraído, enquanto disponível, de: http://www.abdn.ac.uk/medicine_therapeutics


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Porque ocorre a remodelagem óssea? significant amounts of vitamin D, including fatty fish and fish oils. Other dietary sources include fortified milk and margarine, liver, butter, cream and egg yolks.

extraído, quando disponível, de: http://www.abdn.ac.uk/medicine_therapeutics


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Remodelagem óssea e regulação significant amounts of vitamin D, including fatty fish and fish oils. Other dietary sources include fortified milk and margarine, liver, butter, cream and egg yolks.da massa óssea

extraído, enquanto disponível, de: http://www.abdn.ac.uk/medicine_therapeutics


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Efeito da idade na massa óssea e risco de ocorrência de fraturas

Decrease in peak bone mass with age and increase in fracture risk with increasing age. Valsamis et al, 2006

http://www.nutritionandmetabolism.com/content/3/1/36


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Osso e regulação da homeostase fraturasdo cálcio

extraído, enquanto disponível, de: http://www.abdn.ac.uk/medicine_therapeutics


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OS HORMÔNIOS REGULADORES DA REMODELAGEM ÓSSEA fraturas

Progenitoras da matriz óssea

precursor de osteoblastos

precursor de osteoclastos

Glicocorticóides

Estrógenos

Calcitonina

1,25 OHD

PTH

-

-

Estrógenos

Andrógenos

GH/IGF-1

Tiroxina

Vitamina A

+

+

Osteoclasto

Osteoblastos

Formação de osso novo

Resorção óssea

Osteócito

Development of osteoblasts and osteoclasts from bone marrow progenitors. Factors affecting the development and function of these cells, bone resorption by osteoclast and new bone formation by osteoblasts. Abbreviations: GH: growth hormone, IGF: insulin like growth factors, PTH: parathyroid hormone. Valsamis et al. 2006. http://www.nutritionandmetabolism.com/content/3/1/36#


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Remodelagem óssea fraturas

Conheça este WEBsite que possui várias animações muito interessantes, além de textos:

http://courses.washington.edu/bonephys/physremod.html


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Deficiência na infância de Vitamina D/Calcitriol causa o fraturasRaquitismo

Raquitismo:Raquitismo é uma doença do metabolismo da Vitamina D, vital para a mineralização óssea. Deficiência de Vitamina D na dieta é a forma mais comum de raquitismo mas também pode ser devido a alterações genéticas que afetam os vários aspectos do metabolismo da Vitamina D.Veja mais em:http://www.pediatric-orthopedics.com/Topics/Bow_Legs/bow_legs.html


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Vivendo perigosamente... fraturas

Fisiologia Endócrina

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