Apartheid. A Journey of Inequality. Photo Analysis Directions. In your groups, you have two photos to analyze. The photos are in your packets. Using an overhead projector marker, divide your picture into four quadrants to help you focus on all the details more effectively.
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A Journey of Inequality
“I was made by the law, a criminal, not because of what I had done, but because of what I stood for, because of what I thought, because of my conscious. Can it be any wonder to anybody that such conditions make a man an outlaw of society?” Nelson Mandela
1651: Dutch settlers arrive in South Africa.
NATIVES OR INHABITANTS OF THE NETHERLANDS
1756: Dutch settlers import slaves from West Africa, Malaysia, and India, establishing the dominance of whites over non-whites
THE DUTCH FARMERS IN SOUTH AFRICA
1700s: The Dutch farmers, known as Boers, seize land from the natives using shotguns. Natives are forced to work on Boer farms to survive.
1810s: British missionaries arrive and criticize the racist practices of the Boers, urging them to treat the Africans more fairly. The Boers refuse because they believe that they are the more superior race.
OFTEN MISUNDERSTOOD AS A GROUP OF PEOPLE WITH DIFFERENT PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS. WE ARE ALL PART OF THE HUMAN RACE.
1867:Diamond mining begins in South Africa. Africans are the main labor force, are given the most dangerous jobs, and are kept in fenced barracks.
1899-1902: The Boer War is fought between the Boers and the British to see who would rule South Africa. The war was long and bloody. The British were cruel and established 31 concentration camps for Boer women and children and natives. Almost 40,000 people died in these camps.
A CAMP WHERE CIVILIANS, ENEMY ALIENS, POLITICAL PRISONERS, AND SOMETIMES PRISONERS OF WAR ARE FORCIBLY KEPT UNDER THE HARSHEST CONDITIONS.
“Every one of these children who died as a result of the halving of their rations, thereby exerting pressure onto their family still on the battlefield, was purposefully murdered. The system of half rations stands exposed and stark unashamefully as a cold-blooded deed of state policy employed with the purpose of ensuring the surrender of people whom we were not able to defeat on the battlefield.”
-WT Stead, British Journalist
“There were poisonous sulphate of copper, grounded glass, fishhooks, and razor blades in the rations.” –Sara Raal
1908-A constitutional convention is held to establish South African independence from Britain. The all-white government decides that non-whites can vote, but cannot hold office.
RELATED TO THE CIVILIANS OF A COUNTRY
1910-The South Africa Act takes away all political rights of Africans in three of the country’s four states.
1912-The African National Congress is formed. The political party aims to organize Africans in the struggle for civil rights.
ABLE TO READ AND WRITE
1913-The Land Act give 7.3% of the country’s land to Africans, who make up 80% of the population. Africans are allowed to be on white land only of they are working for whites
1920s-Blacks are fired from jobs which are given to whites.
1910s-1930s-Africans educated at missionary schools attempt to organize to resist white rule and gain political power. However, few of them are literate, communication is poor, and money is a problem.
Prominent leaders in South Africa protest the treatment of the blacks. Gandhi is the fourth from the left.
1939-Representation of Voters Act weakened the political rights for Africans and allows them to vote only for white representatives.
PEOPLE ON THE SAME LEVEL, DOING THE SAME WORK
1946-African mine workers are paid twelve times less than their white counterparts. Over 75,000 Africans go on strike in support of higher wages. Over 1000 workers are injured or killed before police violence forces them to end the strike
1948-The Afrikaner Nationalist Party gains control of the government and passed the first of 317 Apartheid laws, separating whites from blacks.
A POLICY OF SEPARATENESS
1951-The African National Congress (ANC), a political organization for Africans, encourages peaceful resistance to Apartheid Laws. The government reacts by arresting more people.
A EUROPEAN DESCENDANT OF THE DUTCH IN SOUTH AFRICA
1950-1953-Multiple Apartheid laws are passed restricting the movement and rights of blacks and requiring pass books. From 1948-1973, over ten million Africans were arrested because their passes were not in order
Working conditions were terrible in the mines, with miners earning only a few dollars a day and being forced to be separate from their families for months or years at a time.
1960-A large group of blacks in the town of Sharpeville refused to carry their passes. 69 people die and 187 are wounded. The African political organizations, the ANC and the Pan-African Congress, are banned.
THE UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS:
ADOPTED ON DECEMBER 10, 1948 BY THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY OF THE UNITED NATIONS AS GUIDELINES FOR HOW HUMAN BEINGS SHOULD BE TREATED ALL OVER THE WORLD
1962-The United Nations establishes the Special Committee Against Apartheidto support a political process of peaceful change, based on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
1963-1990-Nelson Mandela, head of the African National Congress is jailed for the third time. He expected the death penalty and so he gave a four hour long speech, saying what he thought would be his last words to the African community. He was sentenced to life in prison, first on Robben Island, doing intense labor. He then spent 27 years in Pollsmoor Prison, where he was placed in solitary confinement.
1970-Resistance to Apartheid increases. The all-black South African Students Organization, under the leadership of Stephen Biko, helps unify students through the Black Consciousness movement.
Nelson Mandela spent 27 years in solitary confinement in this cell.
1973-The United Nations passed a resolution condemning Apartheid.
A LANGUAGE ADAPTED FROM THE 17TH CENTURY DUTCH SETTLERS OF SOUTH AFRICA
1976-People in Soweto riot and demonstrate against discrimination and instruction in Afrikaans. The police react with gunfire, killing 575 and injuring and arresting thousands. Stephen Biko is beaten and left in jail to die from his injuries.
TO ABSTAIN FROM BUYING OR USING
1980s-People and governments around the world launch an international campaign to boycott South Africa. Hundreds of thousands of Africans who are banned from white-controlled areas ignore the laws and pour into forbidden regions in search of work. Civil disobedience and other protests increase.
THE REFUSAL TO OBEY CERTAIN LAWS FOR THE PURPOSE OF INLUENCING GOVERNMENTAL POLICY
Mid 1980s-The United Democratic Front was formed in South Africa, which was led by Archbishop Desmond Tutu and Reverend Allen Boasek. The organization helped spread the word worldwide about the problem of Apartheid.
This organization helped get the word out to the world about apartheid.
Late 1980s-International pressure forces South Africa to end Apartheid. As a result, some of the segregationist laws are repealed, such as the ones separating whites and non-whites in public places.
ONE WHO BELIEVES THAT RACES SHOULD BE KEPT APART
TO TAKE BACK OR RECALL
1991-1994-South African President F.W. de Klerk repeals the rest of the Apartheid laws and calls for a new constitution. A multiracial transitional government is approved. Nelson Mandela is elected president in 1994.
Nelson Mandela casts the first vote for the new government of South Africa.
On the following slide, you will see a list of Grand Apartheid Laws. After reading through them, choose the one type of law that you think you would have had the hardest time dealing with and would have protested if you were a native in South Africa.
Write the law down in your journal and explain why you think that law would have affected you the most.
Why do you think that the native South Africans didn’t resist these laws more than they did?
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