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2009 FAA EASTERN REGION AIRPORTS ANNUAL HERSHEY CONFERENCE ENGINEERING BRIEF #75 “INCORPORATION OF RUNWAY INCURSION PREV PowerPoint Presentation
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2009 FAA EASTERN REGION AIRPORTS ANNUAL HERSHEY CONFERENCE ENGINEERING BRIEF #75 “INCORPORATION OF RUNWAY INCURSION PREV - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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2009 FAA EASTERN REGION AIRPORTS ANNUAL HERSHEY CONFERENCE ENGINEERING BRIEF #75 “INCORPORATION OF RUNWAY INCURSION PREVENTION INTO TAXIWAY AND APRON DESIGN”. Presented by : John R. Dermody, P.E. Civil Engineer, Senior Program Manager Federal Aviation Administration

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2009 FAA EASTERN REGIONAIRPORTS ANNUAL HERSHEY CONFERENCEENGINEERING BRIEF #75“INCORPORATION OF RUNWAY INCURSION PREVENTION INTO TAXIWAY AND APRON DESIGN”

Presented by:

John R. Dermody, P.E.

Civil Engineer, Senior Program ManagerFederal Aviation Administration

New York Airports District Office

airport design advisory circular ac and engineering briefs
AIRPORT DESIGN ADVISORY CIRCULAR (AC) AND ENGINEERING BRIEFS
  • AC 150/5300-13, “AIRPORT DESIGN”
  • CONTAINS STANDARDS AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE LAYOUT AND DESIGN OF AN AIRPORT
  • ENGINEERING BRIEFS (EB) SERVE AS INTERIM GUIDANCE UNTIL AN AC IS UPDATED
ac 150 5300 13 re write effort
AC 150/5300-13 RE-WRITE EFFORT
  • LAST MAJOR RE-WRITE ABOUT 20 YEARS AGO, INCREMENTAL CHANGES SINCE 1989
  • NATIONAL TEAM OF AIRPORTS DIVISION REPRESENTATIVES TO PERFORM A COMPREHENSIVE RE-WRITE OF 150/5300-13
  • LARGE & CHALLENGING TASK
  • MULTI-YEAR EFFORT, STARTED IN OCTOBER 2005
  • 2 SETS OF INDUSTRY-WIDE REVIEWS ANTICIPATED
taxiway layout guidance
TAXIWAY LAYOUT GUIDANCE
  • ONE OF MY ROLES ON AC REWRITE TEAM
  • HOW COMPLICATED COULD TAXIWAY DESIGN BE?
  • CURRENT AC GUIDANCE FOR TAXIWAYS NEEDS IMPROVEMENT:

- TAXIWAY COMPUTER MODEL / FILLET DESIGN

- DISPLACED THRESHOLD ISSUES WITH POFZ/ TERPS

- RUNWAY TO TAXIWAY SEPARATION

STANDARDS

- NO MENTION OF PROPER LAYOUT TO

MINIMIZE POTENTIAL FOR RUNWAY

INCURSIONS

runway incursions
RUNWAY INCURSIONS
  • A RUNWAY INCURSION IS DEFINED AS: "Any occurrence at an aerodrome involving the incorrect presence of an aircraft, vehicle or person on the protected area of a surface designated for the landing and take off of aircraft."
  • Category A is a serious incident in which a collision was narrowly avoided
  • Category B is an incident in which separation decreases and there is a significant potential for collision, which may result in a time critical corrective/evasive response to avoid a collision.
  • Category C is an incident characterized by ample time and/or distance to avoid a collision.
  • Category D is an incident that meets the definition of runway incursion such as incorrect presence of a single vehicle/person/aircraft on the protected area of a surface designated for the landing and take-off of aircraft but with no immediate safety consequences
  • THERE IS NO SINGLE WAY TO PREVENT RUNWAY INCURSIONS, THE FAA FOCUSES ON OUTREACH, AWARENESS, IMPROVED INFRASTRUCTURE AND TECHNOLOGY
recognition of problem
RECOGNITION OF PROBLEM
  • PARTICIPANT AT RUNWAY SAFETY ACTION TEAM (RSAT) MEETINGS
  • COMMON THEME OF TAXIWAY DESIGN LEADING TO INCURSIONS
  • EACH UNIQUE EXAMPLE MAY BE RECTIFIED DIFFERENTLY
  • NEED FOR UNIFORM DESIGN GUIDANCE
  • DISCUSSED PROBLEM WITH AC REWRITE TEAM
  • DRAFTED A WHITE PAPER IN EARLY 2006 WITH INPUT FROM RUNWAY SAFETY OFFICE AND MITRE CORP.
  • HQ REQUESTED THAT I TURN THE WHITE PAPER INTO AN ENGINEERING BRIEF
engineering brief 75 incorporation of runway incursion prevention into taxiway and apron design
ENGINEERING BRIEF #75, “INCORPORATION OF RUNWAY INCURSION PREVENTION INTO TAXIWAY AND APRON DESIGN”
  • SO WHAT IS EB #75 ALL ABOUT?
  • PROVIDES TAXIWAY DESIGN RECOMMENDATIONS
  • REVIEW AND INPUT FROM NATIONAL AND REGIONAL RUNWAY SAFETY OFFICES, AC REWRITE TEAM AND MITRE CORP.
  • CONSIDER RUNWAY INCURSION PREVENTION WHILE PLANNING AND DESIGNING ANY TAXIWAY CHANGES
  • USE RECOMMENDATIONS TO

REMEDY “HOT SPOTS”

key factors
KEY FACTORS
  • OPERATIONAL USE
  • TAXIWAY GEOMETRY TO INCREASE SITUATIONAL AWARENESS
operational use
OPERATIONAL USE
  • PRIORITY TO LIMIT THE NUMBER OF AIRCRAFT CROSSING ACTIVE RUNWAYS
  • USE TAXI STRATEGIES TO REDUCE NUMBER OF RUNWAY CROSSINGS WHERE POSSIBLE
  • PROVIDE TAXIWAYS TO REDUCE RUNWAY CROSSINGS

- END-AROUND-TAXIWAYS WHERE POSSIBLE

  • COMMUNICATION NEEDED AT RSAT MEETINGS BETWEEN AIRPORT OPERATOR AND FAA RUNWAY SAFETY OFFICE, AIR TRAFFIC AND AIRPORTS ORGANIZATIONS

Figure A: Operational Characteristics of Category A and B Runway Incursions at the OEP 35 Airports (1997-2003)

operational use10
OPERATIONAL USE
  • CROSS AIRCRAFT IN LAST THIRD OF RUNWAY

- MITRE STATISTICS

- RUNWAY SAFETY OFFICE STATISTICS

taxiway geometry

2’- 4’ (0.67-1.34 m)

2’- 4’ (0.67-1.34 m)

16-34

16-34

9-12’

(3 - 3.67 m)

3’ –10’ (0.91 – 2.75 m)

15” (38 cm)

The inscription must have a height of 12’ (3.67 m);

however, it may be reduced, as necessary, to the

minimum height of 9’ (3 m).

TAXIWAY GEOMETRY
  • KEY IS TO INCREASE SITUATIONAL AWARENESS
  • MAY BE AS SIMPLE AS ADDITIONAL LIGHTING, SIGNAGE OR MARKING – OR RELOCATION OF HOLD BAR
  • FAA’S CALL TO ACTION – ENHANCE MARKINGS
  • KEEP TAXIWAY GEOMETRY SIMPLE – REDUCES PILOT ERROR
  • MAY REQUIRE RECONFIGURATION

OF TAXIWAYS, ESPECIALLY IN

“HOT-SPOT” LOCATIONS

taxiway geometry12
TAXIWAY GEOMETRY
  • AVOID DIRECT ACCESS TO A RUNWAY FROM A TERMINAL OR RAMP (OUTBOUND)
taxiway geometry13
TAXIWAY GEOMETRY
  • HIGH SPEED EXIT TAXIWAYS SHOULD NOT LEAD DIRECTLY ACROSS ANOTHER RUNWAY (INBOUND)
taxiway geometry14
TAXIWAY GEOMETRY
  • REDUCE EXCESS PAVEMENT AREAS

- RUNWAY/ TAXIWAY INTERSECTIONS

- TAXIWAY/ TAXIWAY INTERSECTIONS

- CO-LOCATED HIGH SPEED EXITS

  • PROVIDES ABILITY TO INSTALL SIGNAGE TO ENHANCE VISUAL CONSPICUITY AND PROMOTE SITUATIONAL AWARENESS
taxiway geometry15
TAXIWAY GEOMETRY
  • REDUCE THE NUMBER OF TAXIWAYS INTERSECTING TOGETHER

- LIMIT TO “3-POINT NODE DECISION”

- EXCESS PAVEMENT LIMITS EFFECTIVENESS OF SIGNAGE AND LIGHTING

- INFORMATION OVERLOAD

- INCREASES LIKELIHOOD OF PILOT DISORIENTATION

taxiway geometry16
TAXIWAY GEOMETRY
  • ALWAYS USE RIGHT-ANGLED TAXIWAYS THAT INTERSECT A RUNWAY FOR CROSSINGS, EXCEPT DEDICATED ACUTE-ANGLED EXIT TAXIWAYS
taxiway geometry17
TAXIWAY GEOMETRY
  • DESIGN AROUND TERPS / AIRPORT DESIGN CRITERIA TO AVOID HOLD LINE IN UNEXPECTED LOCATION
apron and service road considerations
APRON AND SERVICE ROAD CONSIDERATIONS
  • AT GA AIRPORTS, SITE AIRCRAFT APRONS TO MINIMIZE RUNWAY CROSSINGS
  • CONSTRUCT SERVICE ROADS TO SEPARATE VEHICLES - ESPECIALLY FUEL TRUCKS AND MAINTENANCE VEHICLES FROM AOA
engineering brief 7520
ENGINEERING BRIEF #75
  • KEY POINTS:
    • LIMIT AIRCRAFT CROSSING ACTIVE RUNWAYS
    • PROVIDE END-AROUND-TAXIWAYS OR CROSSING TAXIWAYS WITHIN THE LAST “THIRD” OF THE RUNWAY
    • OPTIMIZE PILOT’S RECOGNITION OF RUNWAY ENTRY (INCREASE SITUATIONAL AWARENESS) THROUGH GEOMETRY AND SIGNAGE/ MARKING/ LIGHTING
    • USE RIGHT-ANGLE TAXIWAY/ RUNWAY INTERSECTIONS (EXCEPT HIGH SPEED EXITS)
    • AVOID WIDE EXPANSES OF PAVEMENT
    • LIMIT THE NUMBER OF TAXIWAYS INTERSECTING AT ONE POINT
    • AVOID DIRECT ACCESS FROM TERMINAL RAMPS TO RUNWAY
    • HIGH SPEED EXIT TAXIWAYS SHOULD NOT LEAD DIRECTLY INTO A TAXIWAY CROSSING A RUNWAY
thank you questions

THANK YOU!QUESTIONS?

http://www.faa.gov/airports_airtraffic/airports/construction/engineering_briefs/media/EB_75.pdf

John R. Dermody, P.E.

Civil Engineer, Senior Program Manager

FAA - New York Airports District Office

(516) 227-3869

John.Dermody@faa.gov

Presented By: