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  1. Science AHSGE Numbered Flash CardsCreated by Lauderdale County School DistrictBy Stephen Phillips, Paul Crawford, and Pam Tanner

  2. 1. SI Units of Volume Liters, millileters, and cubic centimeters

  3. 2. SI units of distance Kilometers, meters, centimeters, and millimeters

  4. 3. SI units of mass Kilograms, grams milligrams

  5. 4. Lab safety review • When combining an acid or base with water, always pour the acid or base into the water. • When lighting a Bunsen burner, hold a lighted match next to the barrel and turn on gas • Never smell a chemical directly from a container. Always use your hand to wave (waft) some of the odors toward your nose. • Never pour any unused chemical back into its original container. • In case of an accident in a lab, always tell the teacher first. • Always point a heated test tube or bottle away from yourself and others.

  6. 5. Steps of the scientific method • Observe/state the problem/ask a question • Form a hypothesis • Test the hypothesis (perform an experiment) • Analyze and record data • Form a conclusion

  7. 6. Phrases that describe a hypothesis A preliminary conclusion, a suggested answer, a possible solution

  8. 7. Compare control (control setup) and variables: • Control: part of the experiment that does not change during the experiment (no change) • Variables : part of the experiment that changes during the experiment

  9. 8. Compare autotrophs and heterotrophs: • Autotrophs: organisms that have the ability to produce their own food • Heterotrophs: organisms that depend on other organisms for a source of food; they can not make their own food

  10. 9. Producers Autotrophs that are eaten by heterotrophs

  11. 10. Consumers Heterotrophs that eat other organisms such as • Herbivores – plant eaters • Carnivores – animal eaters • Omnivores – eat both plants and animals • Parasites – live in or on other organisms and do harm

  12. 11. Decomposers Heterotrophs that decompose organic material; can be called saprophytes; best examples – fungi and bacteria

  13. 12. Water cycle Evaporation, condensation, and precipitation

  14. 13. Nitrogen cycle • Aided by decomposers • Animals and humans get nitrogen from eating protein • Nitrogen from atmosphere fixed by lightning, bacteria, or the roots of plants.

  15. 14. Transpiration Evaporation of water out of plants; when water is pulled out of plants into the environment; 90% of evaporation from terrestrial environments is caused by transpiration

  16. 15. Compare aerobic and anerobic. Aerobic processes require oxygen while anerobic processes do not require oxygen

  17. 16. Photosynthesis Sunlight + CO2+ H2O  C6H2O6 +O2

  18. 17. Cellular respiration (anerobic respiration) C6H12O6 + O2 CO2 + H2O + ATP

  19. 18. Define food chain and list an example that includes at least 5 organisms. A food chain is a simple or single line feeding relationship; example – grass->grasshopper->small bird->snake->hawk

  20. 19. Define food web and diagram an example. A food web is a series of complex interconnecting food chains

  21. 20. Draw and label an ecological (energy) pyramid. Ecological pyramid (also called an energy pyramid) Number of organisms and Amount of energy decreases from the bottom to the top Each level receives approximately 10% of the energy that the previous level used AAAAA 4th heterotrophs 3rd order consumer 2nd order consumer 1st order consumer Autotrophs/Producers

  22. 21. Define and draw an example of the molecules in a solid. Particles are packed together tightly; has a definite shape and volume

  23. 22. Define liquidand draw an example of the molecules in a liquid. Particles are not held together as tightly as a solid; has a definite volume but not a definite shape

  24. 23. Define gas and draw an example of the molecules in a gas. Particles in a gas move around; has no definite shape nor volume

  25. 24. Factors that affect the rates of change. • Increasing the surface or contact area (breaking materials down into smaller pieces) • Increasing concentration • Stirring • Adding a catalyst (increases the reaction rate by lowering the amount of activation energy which is the energy needed to start a chemical reaction) • Adding biological catalyst (enzymes) – which are usually proteins that speed up chemical reactions in living things • Increasing temperature

  26. 25. Kinetic energy Energy of a moving object

  27. 26. List the seven order system of classification in order from the largest (most inclusive; least specific) to the smallest (least inclusive; most specific). Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species

  28. 27. Define binomial nomenclature and correctly write 3 scientific names using the rules for binomial nomenclature. • A two part scientific name • Scientific name examples – Homo sapiens, Acer rubrum, Panthera leo

  29. 28. Kingdom Monera (Eubacteria and Archaebacteria) • Only prokaryotic kingdom • All unicellular • Example – bacteria and cyanobacteria (also called blue-green algae)

  30. 29. Kingdom Protista • Eukaryotes • Mostly unicellular • Examples include amoeba, paramecium, and euglena

  31. 30. Kingdom Fungi Multicellular, eukaryotic heterotrophs that have cell walls that contain a tough carbohydrate called cellulose

  32. 31. Kingdom Plantae Multicellular, eukaryotic heterotrophs that have cell walls that contain a tough carbohydrate called chitin

  33. 32. Kingdom Animalia Multicellular, eukaryotic heterotrophs that have no cell walls

  34. 33. Amoeba

  35. 34. Paramecium

  36. 35. Euglena

  37. 36. Compare the following structures used in locomotion (movement). • Pseudopods – “false foot” used by amoebas for movement; produced by changing shapes of the cell membrane and cytoplasm • Cilia – short hair-like or thread-like structure; found on paramecium • Flagella – long whip-like, hair-like, or thread-like structure; found on euglenas

  38. 37. Saprophytes Organisms that feed on dead organic material; includes species of fungi and bacteria

  39. 38. Draw and label the parts of a typical flower.

  40. 39. Define stamen and its parts (anther, filament, and pollen). • stamen – the entire male part of a flower • anther – the topmost part of the flower that produces pollen • filament – the stalk of the stamen that supports the anther • pollen – contains the sperm cells of plants

  41. 40. Define pistil and its parts (stigma, style, ovary, and ovule). • Pistil – the entire female part of a flower • Stigma – the topmost sticky surface of the pistil that receives the pollen • Style – the tube through which pollen descend from the stigma to the ovary • Ovary – the bulb shaped structure at the bottom of the pistil that contains the ovules • Ovules – egg cells of plants

  42. 41. Compare sepals and petals. • Sepals – leaves under the petals; outermost whorl of leaves on the flower that protect the bud • Petals – the leaves of the flower that are typically brightly colored to attract pollinators

  43. 42. Nonvascular plants • Simple plants that lack vascular tissues • Are considered to have no true roots, stems, or leaves • Example – Bryophytes (mosses, liverworts, and hornworts)

  44. 43. Vascular plants • Complex plants that have vascular tissues • Have true roots, stems, and leaves • Examples – ferns and fern like plant, gymnosperms, and angiosperms

  45. 44. Compare xylem and phloem. • Xylem – vascular tissue that carries water and minerals upward in plants • Phloem – vascular tissue that carries sugars made by the plant during photosynthesis either upward or downward in the plant

  46. 45. Gymnosperms • Vascular plants that produce seeds that are not covered by a fruit • Sometimes called the “naked – seed” plants • Mainly pollinated by the wind • Mainly cone-bearing evergreens that have needlelike leaves • Examples – pines, cedars, spruce, fir

  47. 46. Angiosperms • Vascular plants that produce seeds that are protected by a fruit (ripened ovary that surrounds and protects the seeds) • Produce reproductive structures called flowers • Largest group in the plant kingdom

  48. 47. Ferns • Vascular, spore-producing plants • Spores are typically found on the underside of the leaves fronds – leaves of a fern • Have creeping underground stems called rhizomes

  49. 48. Prop plants Plants that have root systems that are at least partly exposed to the air such as some types of plants that live in swamps and corn

  50. 49. Tropical rainforest plants • Have wide leaves to help them absorb as much sunlight as possible because of thick vegetation growth • Upper layers of the trees in the rainforests are called canopy