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# Science - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Science. AHSGE Numbered Flash Cards Created by Lauderdale County School District By Stephen Phillips, Paul Crawford, and Pam Tanner. 1. SI Units of Volume. Liters, millileters, and cubic centimeters. 2. SI units of distance. Kilometers, meters, centimeters, and millimeters.

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### Science

AHSGE Numbered Flash CardsCreated by Lauderdale County School DistrictBy Stephen Phillips, Paul Crawford, and Pam Tanner

1. SI Units of Volume

Liters, millileters, and cubic centimeters

2. SI units of distance

Kilometers, meters, centimeters, and millimeters

3. SI units of mass

Kilograms, grams milligrams

4. Lab safety review
• When combining an acid or base with water, always pour the acid or base into the water.
• When lighting a Bunsen burner, hold a lighted match next to the barrel and turn on gas
• Never smell a chemical directly from a container. Always use your hand to wave (waft) some of the odors toward your nose.
• Never pour any unused chemical back into its original container.
• In case of an accident in a lab, always tell the teacher first.
• Always point a heated test tube or bottle away from yourself and others.
5. Steps of the scientific method
• Observe/state the problem/ask a question
• Form a hypothesis
• Test the hypothesis (perform an experiment)
• Analyze and record data
• Form a conclusion
6. Phrases that describe a hypothesis

A preliminary conclusion, a suggested answer, a possible solution

7. Compare control (control setup) and variables:
• Control: part of the experiment that does not change during the experiment (no change)
• Variables : part of the experiment that changes during the experiment
8. Compare autotrophs and heterotrophs:
• Autotrophs: organisms that have the ability to produce their own food
• Heterotrophs: organisms that depend on other organisms for a source of food; they can not make their own food
9. Producers

Autotrophs that are eaten by heterotrophs

10. Consumers

Heterotrophs that eat other organisms such as

• Herbivores – plant eaters
• Carnivores – animal eaters
• Omnivores – eat both plants and animals
• Parasites – live in or on other organisms and do harm
11. Decomposers

Heterotrophs that decompose organic material; can be called saprophytes; best examples – fungi and bacteria

12. Water cycle

Evaporation, condensation, and precipitation

13. Nitrogen cycle
• Aided by decomposers
• Animals and humans get nitrogen from eating protein
• Nitrogen from atmosphere fixed by lightning, bacteria, or the roots of plants.
14. Transpiration

Evaporation of water out of plants; when water is pulled out of plants into the environment; 90% of evaporation from terrestrial environments is caused by transpiration

15. Compare aerobic and anerobic.

Aerobic processes require oxygen while anerobic processes do not require oxygen

16. Photosynthesis

Sunlight + CO2+ H2O  C6H2O6 +O2

18. Define food chain and list an example that includes at least 5 organisms.

A food chain is a simple or single line feeding relationship; example – grass->grasshopper->small bird->snake->hawk

19. Define food web and diagram an example.

A food web is a series of complex interconnecting food chains

20. Draw and label an ecological (energy) pyramid.

Ecological pyramid (also called an energy pyramid)

Number of organisms and Amount of energy decreases from the bottom to the top

Each level receives approximately 10% of the energy that the previous level used

AAAAA

4th

heterotrophs

3rd order consumer

2nd order consumer

1st order consumer

Autotrophs/Producers

21. Define and draw an example of the molecules in a solid.

Particles are packed together tightly; has a definite shape and volume

Particles are not held together as tightly as a solid; has a definite volume but not a definite shape

Particles in a gas move around; has no definite shape nor volume

24. Factors that affect the rates of change.
• Increasing the surface or contact area (breaking materials down into smaller pieces)
• Increasing concentration
• Stirring
• Adding a catalyst (increases the reaction rate by lowering the amount of activation energy which is the energy needed to start a chemical reaction)
• Adding biological catalyst (enzymes) – which are usually proteins that speed up chemical reactions in living things
• Increasing temperature
25. Kinetic energy

Energy of a moving object

26. List the seven order system of classification in order from the largest (most inclusive; least specific) to the smallest (least inclusive; most specific).

Kingdom

Phylum

Class

Order

Family

Genus

Species

27. Define binomial nomenclature and correctly write 3 scientific names using the rules for binomial nomenclature.
• A two part scientific name
• Scientific name examples – Homo sapiens, Acer rubrum, Panthera leo
28. Kingdom Monera (Eubacteria and Archaebacteria)
• Only prokaryotic kingdom
• All unicellular
• Example – bacteria and cyanobacteria (also called blue-green algae)
29. Kingdom Protista
• Eukaryotes
• Mostly unicellular
• Examples include amoeba, paramecium, and euglena
30. Kingdom Fungi

Multicellular, eukaryotic heterotrophs that have cell walls that contain a tough carbohydrate called cellulose

31. Kingdom Plantae

Multicellular, eukaryotic heterotrophs that have cell walls that contain a tough carbohydrate called chitin

32. Kingdom Animalia

Multicellular, eukaryotic heterotrophs that have no cell walls

• Pseudopods – “false foot” used by amoebas for movement; produced by changing shapes of the cell membrane and cytoplasm
• Cilia – short hair-like or thread-like structure; found on paramecium
• Flagella – long whip-like, hair-like, or thread-like structure; found on euglenas
37. Saprophytes

Organisms that feed on dead organic material; includes species of fungi and bacteria

• stamen – the entire male part of a flower
• anther – the topmost part of the flower that produces pollen
• filament – the stalk of the stamen that supports the anther
• pollen – contains the sperm cells of plants
• Pistil – the entire female part of a flower
• Stigma – the topmost sticky surface of the pistil that receives the pollen
• Style – the tube through which pollen descend from the stigma to the ovary
• Ovary – the bulb shaped structure at the bottom of the pistil that contains the ovules
• Ovules – egg cells of plants
41. Compare sepals and petals.
• Sepals – leaves under the petals; outermost whorl of leaves on the flower that protect the bud
• Petals – the leaves of the flower that are typically brightly colored to attract pollinators
42. Nonvascular plants
• Simple plants that lack vascular tissues
• Are considered to have no true roots, stems, or leaves
• Example – Bryophytes (mosses, liverworts, and hornworts)
43. Vascular plants
• Complex plants that have vascular tissues
• Have true roots, stems, and leaves
• Examples – ferns and fern like plant, gymnosperms, and angiosperms
44. Compare xylem and phloem.
• Xylem – vascular tissue that carries water and minerals upward in plants
• Phloem – vascular tissue that carries sugars made by the plant during photosynthesis either upward or downward in the plant
45. Gymnosperms
• Vascular plants that produce seeds that are not covered by a fruit
• Sometimes called the “naked – seed” plants
• Mainly pollinated by the wind
• Mainly cone-bearing evergreens that have needlelike leaves
• Examples – pines, cedars, spruce, fir
46. Angiosperms
• Vascular plants that produce seeds that are protected by a fruit (ripened ovary that surrounds and protects the seeds)
• Produce reproductive structures called flowers
• Largest group in the plant kingdom
47. Ferns
• Vascular, spore-producing plants
• Spores are typically found on the underside of the leaves fronds – leaves of a fern
• Have creeping underground stems called rhizomes
48. Prop plants

Plants that have root systems that are at least partly exposed to the air such as some types of plants that live in swamps and corn

49. Tropical rainforest plants
• Have wide leaves to help them absorb as much sunlight as possible because of thick vegetation growth
• Upper layers of the trees in the rainforests are called canopy
50. Tundra plants
• Small plants that grow rapidly during their short growing seasons
• Have to be able to reproduce quickly because of short growing seasons
• Able to survive extreme cold during winter because of blankets of snow on them
51. Desert plants
• Have leaves that are modified into spines in order to help them to reduce water loss
• Have shallow root systems that branch out in order to absorb as much water as possible
• Have stomata that open only at night in order to slow water loss
52. Stomata and guard cells
• Stomata are tiny openings typically on the underside of leaves that allow for gas exchange
• Guard cells are the cells that surround the stomata that cause the stomata to open and close
53. Mimicry

A harmless animal resembles one that is harmful such as a scarlet kingsnake (harmless) resembling the poisonous coral snake

54. Protective coloration

A form of camouflage that helps an animal to blend in with their surroundings in order to make it more difficult for predators to get them

55. Warning Coloration

Coloration on animals that “warns” other animals to stay away

56. Compare radial and bilateral symmetry.
• Radial symmetry – animals with central point with structures that radiate out from the center
• Bilateral symmetry – animals that can be divided into two basically equal sides
57. Compare vertebrates and invertebrates
• Invertebrates are animals that lack a backbone (they make up 95-99% of all animal species)
• Vertebrates are animals that have a backbone
58. Phylum Porifera
• Sponges
• Simplest Animal group
• Cells and tissus – No organs or organ systems
• Filter feeders – means that they get food by filtering water
• Sessile as adults – means that they move very little if any at all
• Asymmetrical – means that they have no particular shape
59. Phylum Cnidaria
• Animals with stinging cells on tentacles that surround their mouths
• Includes jellyfish, corals and sea anemones
• Considered to have radial symmetry
60. Phylum Platyhelminthes
• Flatworms
• No true body segments
• Mostly parasites
61. Phylum Nematoda
• Roundworms
• Many are parasites
• Unsegmented
62. Phylum Annelida
• Segmented worms
• Include earthworms, leeches and marine worms
• Closed circulation – blood is contained within vessels
63. Phylum Mollusca

Described as soft-bodies animals with a shell

64. Gastropods

Mollusks that include slugs and snails

65. Bivalves
• Mollusks that include clams, oysters, and mussels
• Bivalves are important as biological indicators because they are filter feeders
66. Cephalopods
• Mollusks that include squid and octopi
• Considered to be the smartest invertebrates
67. Phylum Arthropoda
• Jointed appendages animals with segmentation and exoskeletons
• Largest animal phylum
68. Arachnida
• Arthropods that include spiders, mites, ticks, scorpions
• Eight legs
• Body regions – cephalothorax and abdomen
69. Crustaceans
• Arthropods that include shrimp, lobsters, crayfish, barnacles
• Mostly aquatic with many of them livng in marine (ocean) environments
• Two pairs of antennae
70. Millipedes and centipedes (types of arthropods)
• Millipedes – two pairs of legs per body segment
• Herbivores
• Centipedes – one pair of legs per body segment
• Carnivores with poison claws
71. Class Insecta (Types of arthropods)
• The largest class in the animal kingdom
• 6 legs
• Many with two pairs of wings
• 3 body regions – head, thorax, and abdomen
• Many use pheromones which are chemicals used to attract other insects in order to mate of find food
72. Phylum Echinodermata
• Spiny-skinned animals
• Includes starfish, sea urchins, sand dollars
• Have a water vascular system with tube feet
73. Phylum Chordata and Subphylum Vertebrata

Includes all of the animals with a backbone – fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals

74. Class Agnatha
• Jawless fishes
• Include hagfish and lampreys (many of which are parasites)
75. Class Chondichthyes
• Cartilage fishes
• Includes sharks, rays, and skates
• Ectotherms
• 2 chambered hearts – an atrium and a ventricle
• Most use external fertilization
76. Class Osteichthyes
• Bony fishes
• Largest vertebrate animal group
• Ectotherms
• 2 chambered hearts – an atrium and a ventricle
• Most use external fertilization
• Have a gill covering called an operculum
77. Class Amphibia
• Amphibian refers to double life – begin life as a larva in water and are able to move on land as adults
• Ecotherms
• 3 chambered hearts – two atria and one ventricle
• External fertilization
78. Class Reptilia
• Snakes, lizards, and turtles
• Lay eggs on land
• Most have 3 chambered hearts except for crocidilians which have 4 heart chambers
• Ectotherms
• Internal fertilization
79. Class Aves
• Birds
• 4 chambered hearts – two atria and two ventricles
• Endotherms – basically means warm-blooded
• Many have hollow bones that help them to fly
• Have air sacs associated with lungs
• Internal fertilization
80. Class Mammalia)
• Vertebrates that have hair or fur and give their young mile
• Include monotremes, marsupials, and placentals
81. Monotremes
• Egg-laying mammals
• Includes the duck-billed platypus and the spiny anteater (also known as the echidna)
82. Marsupials
• Pouched mammals
• Includes kangaroos, koalas, Virginia opossum (only native North American marsupial)
83. Placentals
• Females in this group have a placenta (which is an organ of exchange between the mother and the unborn offspring)
• Most mammals are included in this category such as bats, dogs, rodents, marine mammals, humans
84. Compare chromosomes, DNA, and genes.
• Chromosomes – rod-shaped structures that contain DNA that is tightly wrapped around proteins
• DNA – stands for deoxyribonucleic acid; contains the genetic code that is responsible for controlling cell functions
• Genes – segments of DNA that code for proteins
85. Compare germ and somatic mutations.
• Germ mutations – mutations that affect reproductive cells that can be passed on from parent to offspring
• Somatic mutations – mutations that affect somatic (body) cells that are not passed on to offspring
86. Chromosomal mutations

Mutations that affect chromosomes such as

• Inversions – reversal of chromosome parts
• Duplications – chromosome parts are duplicated
• Deletions – chromosome parts are deleted
• Translocation – nonhomologous chromosomes exchange parts
• Polyploidy – extra sets of chromosomes; almost always fatal in humans and animals but usually beneficial in plants
87. Nondisjunction
• Type of chromosal mutation
• Failure of chromosomes to separate during meiosis
• Causes Down Syndrome (Trisomy 21)
88. Gene mutations

Gene mutations are mutations that affect segments of DNA

• Point mutations – mutations that affect specific nucleotides on chromosomes; sickle cell anemia is a disorder caused by a point mutation
• Frameshift mutations – misreading of the genetic code during translation
89. Define pedigree and draw an example.

A family record that shows how traits are inherited over generations

90. Compare genotype and phenotype.
• Genotype – the genetic makeup of an organism
• Phenotype – the physical appearance of an organism based upon the genotype
91. Compare homozygous dominant, heterozygous, and homozygous recessive.
• Homozygous dominant – 2 dominant forms of a gene are paired
• Heterozygous – 2 different forms of a gene are paired
• Homozygous recessive – 2 recessive forms of a gene are paired
92. Use a Punnett square to show a cross between heterozygous organisms. List the genotypic and phenotypic ratios for the cross.
93. Use a Punnett square to show a cross between a heterozygous and homozygous recessive organism. List the genotypic and phenotypic ratios for the cross.
94. Mutagens

An agent of mutation (causes mutations) such as chemicals, ultraviolet radiation

95. Describe the structure and function of DNA
• Contains the genetic code that controls cell function
• Made up of repeating units of nucleotides; each nucleotide consists of a sugar called deoxyribose, a phosphate group, and a nitrogen containing bases
• In DNA there are 4 nitrogen containing bases – adenine pairs with thymine and guanine pairs with cytosine
• DNA’s shape is called a double helix which can also be described as a twisted ladder
96. Compare dominance and recessive genetic characteristics.
• Dominant characteristics can cover up or mask out other forms of the same trait
• Recessive characteristics are traits that are covered up or masked out by dominant traits
97. Compare Codominance and Incomplete Dominance.
• Codominance – traits are expressed at the same time such as AB blood types
• Incomplete dominance – there is a blend of traits because neither trait is dominant like in 4 o’clock flowers – (pollinating a red flower with a white flower would give you a pink flower)
98. Compare diploid and haploid.
• Diploid – a complete set of chromosomes; abbreviated (2n); somatic cells (body cells) are diploid
• Haploid – half of the complete set of chromosomes; abbreviated (n); germ cells (reproductive cells ) are haploid
99. Terms used to describe reproductive cells
• Sex cells, germ cells, gamete cells meiotic cells
• In animals and humans these cells are the egg and sperm cells
• In plants these cells are pollen (sperm) and ovules (egg)
100. Compare a zygote and an embryo.
• Zygote – an egg cell that has been fertilized by a sperm cell
• Embryo – a ball of cells that is produced when a zygote begins to grow by producing more cells through cell division called mitosis
101. Compare prokaryote and eukaryote.
• Prokaryote – unicellular organisms that do not have a well-defined nucleus; include bacteria and cyanobacteria
• Eukaryote – organisms that possess a well-defined nucleus and membrane-bound organelles
102. Compare passive and active transport.
• Passive transport – cell transport that involves little or no energy (moves materials from a high to low concentration)
• Active transport – cell transport that requires energy use (moves materials from a low to a high concentration)
103. Types of passive transport
• Diffusion – movement of materials from a higher to a lower concentration; attempt to move toward equilibrium
• Osmosis – diffusion of water across a semi permeable membrane
• Facilitated diffusion – involves movement of materials that uses a carrier molecule which is usually a protein carrier
104. Define hypotonic and draw an example
• Higher concentration of a solute on the inside of a cell
• Water will enter cell
105. Define hypertonic and draw an example.
• Higher concentration of a solute outside of the cell membrane
• Water will leave cell
106. Define isotonic and draw an example.

Equal amounts of solute on either side of the cell membrane

107. Define turgor pressure and draw an example.

Osmotic pressure on the inside of a plant cell due to the water inside the plant cell’s vacuoles

108. Types of active transport
• Endocytosis – movement of materials into a cell that requires energy; can be described as transporting into, cell eating, engulfing
• Exocytosis – movement of materials out of a cell that requires energy; can be described as transported out of, discharged, gotten rid of , expelled
109. Compare the multicellular levels of organization from the simplest to the most complex.
• Cell –simplest level of organization
• Tissue – made of cells working together
• Organ – made of tissues working together
• Organ system– organs working together
• Multicellular organism – many celled living thing
110. Nucleus (of a cell)
• Control center of the cell
• DNA is located in the nucleus
111. Golgi apparatus

Cell organelle that distributes, packages, and modifies materials needed by the cell

112. Lysosome

A vacuole that contains digestive enzymes and breaks down old or worn out organelles

Cell organelle that distributes, packages and modifies materials needed by the cell

113. Vacuole

Area of the cell where materials such as water, proteins, and salts are stored

114. Mitochondrion
• Cell organelle that obtains energy from food by combining (typically sugars) with oxygen
• “Powerhouse of the cell”
• Particularly active cells have a lot of mitochondrion
115. Plastid

Cell organelles in plant and plant-like cells that are used to help obtain energy (chloroplasts) plus store food and pigment

116. Chloroplast

Green disk-shaped cell organells found in plant and plant-like cells that absorb energy from sunlight to jump start the process of photosynthesis

117. Endoplasmic reticulum

Cell organelle responsible for cell transportation

118. Ribosomes

Cell organelles where proteins are made

• Plant cells have cell walls containing cellulose; animal cells have no cell walls
• Plant cells have plastids such as chloroplasts; animal cells have no chloroplasts
• Plant cells have vacuoles that tend to be larger than the vacuoles of animal cells
• Plant cells tend to be more squared in shape while animal cells tend to be more rounded in shape
120. Exotic species (also called introduced or non-native)

Species that are introduced into an area where they were not present before

121. Dynamic equilibrium
• Organisms must deal with changing environments
• Also can be described as organisms remaining fairly balanced in their habits even though the environment around them is constantly changing
122. Compare abiotic and biotic factors.
• Abiotic factors are nonliving factors in ecosystems such as rocks, dirt, and water
• Biotic factors are living factors which include any living organism in the ecosystem
123. Describe symbiosis and the main types of symbiosis.

Symbiosis – a relationship between 2 different species

• Parasitism – one organism lives in or on another and does harm
• Mutualism – 2 different species live together and both benefit
• Commensalism – 2 different species live together; one benefits and the other neither benefits nor is harmed
• Competition – the struggle between more than one species to obtain materials needed for survival
124. Compare density-dependent and density-independent limiting factors.
• Density-dependent limiting factors – factors that affect a population that are caused by the population size such as disease being spread, lack of water and food, not enough shelter
• Density-independent limiting factors – factors that affect a population that are caused by nature such as hurricanes, wild fires, tornadoes