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Learning

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Learning

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  1. Learning Classical Conditioning

  2. Learning • Learning: process by which experience or practice results in a relatively permanent change in behavior or potential behavior • Conditioning: acquisition of fairly specific pattern of behavior in the presence of well defined stimuli • Stimuli: something that causes a response • Classical and Operant Conditioning

  3. Classical Conditioning • Ivan Pavlov • Salivation is learned reflex • Pavlov’s dogs • Classical conditioning • Neutral stimulus acquires the ability to produce a response that was originally produced by a different stimulus

  4. Classical Conditioning • Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS/US):stimulus that triggers or elicits physiological response • Unconditioned Response (UCR/UR): unlearned, innate, involuntary physiological response • Conditioned Stimulus (CS): stimulus that has acquired ability to elicit a response • Conditioned Response (CR): response to CS that causes similar response as UCR

  5. Classical Conditioning • Acquisition: associating a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus elicits a conditioned response • Extinction: conditioned stimulus no longer produces conditioned response. Suppresses CR. • Spontaneous Recovery: conditioned response reappears after being extinguished

  6. Classical Conditioning • Generalization: stimulus that is similar to original stimulus that causes similar response • Discrimination: Organism learns to give a response to one stimulus but not another • Higher Order Stimulus: UCS becomes a CS • John B. Watson-Behaviorism: most behaviors are conditioned • Little Albert • Phobias • Conditioned emotional response • Aversions • Peter • Desensitization Theory: learning to overcome fears by relaxation methods

  7. Operant conditioning • Operant conditioning