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CSEB114: Principle of programming . Chapter 8: Arrays. Objectives. In this chapter, you will learn about Introduction to Array Array declaration Array initialization Assigning values to array elements Reading values from array elements Relationship with pointers

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CSEB114: Principle of programming


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objectives
Objectives
  • In this chapter, you will learn about
    • Introduction to Array
    • Array declaration
    • Array initialization
    • Assigning values to array elements
    • Reading values from array elements
    • Relationship with pointers
    • Passing array to function
    • 2 Dimensional arrays
    • Simple Searching
    • Simple Sorting

prepared by NI, edited by MAF

introduction to array
Introduction to Array
  • In C, a group of items of the same type can be set up using Array
  • An array is a group of consecutive memory locations related by the fact that they all have the same name and the same type.
  • The compiler must reserve storage (space) for each element/item of a declared array.
  • The size of an array is static (fixed) throughout program execution.
  • To refer to a particular location or element in the array, we specify the name of the array (index or subscript) and the position number of the particular element in the array.

prepared by NI, edited by MAF

slide4

Let say we have an array called a.

Notice that the position

starts from 0.

-10

99

Name of the array

a[0]

-8

a[1]

The position number within

the square brackets is formally

called a subscript. A subscript

can be an integer or an integer

expression. For example if

x = 1 and y = 2, then a[x+y]

is equal to a[3].

a[2]

100

a[3]

27

a[4]

10

a[5]

1976

a[6]

-2020

1

a[7]

a[8]

prepared by NI, edited by MAF

array declaration
Array Declaration
  • Array declaration is made by specifying the data type, it’s name and the number of space (size) so that the computer may reserve the appropriate amount of memory.
  • General syntax:

data_type array_name[size];

  • Examples:
    • int my_array[100];
    • char name[20];
    • double bigval[5*200];
    • int a[27], b[10], c[76];

prepared by NI, edited by MAF

array initialization
Array Initialization
  • There are 2 ways to initialize an array: during compilation and during execution.
  • During compilation:
    • int arr[ ] = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5};  unsized array
      • We can define how many elements that we want since the array size is not given.
    • int arr[3] = {90, 21, 22};
      • We can define only 3 elements since the array size is already given.
    • int arr[5] = {2,4}
      • Initialize the first two elements to the value of 2 and 4 respectively, while the other elements are initialized to zero.
    • int arr[5] = {0}
      • Initialize all array elements to zero.

prepared by NI, edited by MAF

array initialization cont
Array Initialization cont…
  • During execution:
    • Using loop to initialize all elements to zero

int arr[3], index;

for (index = 0; index < 3; index++)

arr[index] = 0;

    • Using loop and asking the user to specify the value for each element.

int arr[3], index;

for (index = 0; index < 3; index++)

{

printf (“arr[%d]:”,index);

scanf(“%d”,&arr[index]);

}

prepared by NI, edited by MAF

assigning value to array element
Assigning value to array element
  • We can assign a value to a specific array element by using its index number.
  • Example: let’s say we have an array that represent the number of inhabitant in 5 unit apartments.

int apartment[5]={3,2,6,4,5};

  • The above initialization indicates that there are 3 people living in apartment 0, 2 people living in apartment 1 and so on.
  • Let say that we have a new born in apartment 3, so we need to change the number of inhabitant living in apartment three.

apartment[3] = apartment[3] + 1;

  • Now, we have the following values in our array:
    • 3,2,6,5,5

prepared by NI, edited by MAF

reading values from array elements
Reading values from array elements
  • We can read a value from a specific array element by referring to the index.
  • For example, let’s say we want to know how many people leaving in apartment 3, we could simple do this:

int apartment[5] = {3,2,6,4,5};

int no_of_people;

no_of_people = apartment[3];

printf(“Apartment 3 has %d people”, no_of_people);

  • The above C code will produce the following output:

Apartment 3 has 4 people.

Hint!!! Remember that array index starts at 0

prepared by NI, edited by MAF

example 1 finding total inhabitants
Example 1: finding total inhabitants

#include <stdio.h>

#define size 5

void main(void)

{

int apartment[size] = {3,2,6,4,5};

int index, total = 0;

for (index = 0; index < size; index++)

{

total = total + apartment[index];

}

printf("There are total of %d inhabitants",total);

}

Output:

There are total of 20 inhabitants

prepared by NI, edited by MAF

example 2 list down number of inhabitants in each apartment
Example 2: list down number of inhabitants in each apartment

#include <stdio.h>

int main(void)

{

int apartment[5] = {3,2,6,4,5};

int index, total = 0;

printf("%-7s %-15s\n","Apt No", "No of people");

for (index = 0; index < 5; index++)

{

printf("%4d %10d\n",index, apartment[index]);

}

return 0;

}

prepared by NI, edited by MAF

example 2 output
Example 2 output

Apt No No of people

0 3

1 2

2 6

3 4

4 5

prepared by NI, edited by MAF

relationship with pointers

Using index

Using pointers

int test[3] = {9, 10, 11}, k;

for (k = 0; k < 3; k++)

printf(“%d\n”, test[k]);

int test[3] = {9, 10, 11}, k;

int *ptr = test;

for (k = 0; k < 3; k++, ptr++)

printf(“%d\n”, *ptr);

Relationship with pointers
  • The name of an array is actually a pointer to the first element in the array.
  • Therefore, if we have:

int test[3] = {9, 10, 11};

printf(“%d”, *test);

The output would be: 9

  • There are a few ways to traverse an array:

prepared by NI, edited by MAF

passing array to a function
Passing Array to a Function
  • When we pass an array to a function, we are actually passing the pointer to the first element in the array to the function. Therefore, any changes to the array inside the function will also change the actual array inside the calling function.
  • When we want to pass an array to a function, we need to know these 3 things.
    • How to write the function prototype?
    • How to do function call?
    • How does the function header would look like?

prepared by NI, edited by MAF

passing array to a function15
Passing Array to a Function
  • Assume that we have the following array declaration.

flaot marks[10] = {0.0};

  • Say for example we want to write a function, called get_marks, which will read marks from the user and store the marks inside the array.

prepared by NI, edited by MAF

passing array to a function16
Passing Array to a Function
  • Function prototype:

/* data type with square bracket */

void get_marks(float [ ]);

void get_marks(float *); /*treating array as pointer */

  • Function call:

get_marks(marks); /* just pass the array name */

  • Function header:

void get_marks(float marks[ ])

void get_marks(float *marks) /*treating array as pointers */

prepared by NI, edited by MAF

example 1 parameter received as an array
Example 1: parameter received as an array

#include <stdio.h>

#define size 10

void get_marks(float [ ]);

float calc_average(float [ ]);

int main(void)

{

float marks[size] = {0.0}; /*initializing the array

get_marks(marks); /* function call */

printf(“Average for marks given is %f”, calc_average(marks));

return 0;

}

prepared by NI, edited by MAF

example 1 parameter received as an array18
Example 1: parameter received as an array

void get_marks(float marks[ ])

{

int i;

for (i = 0; i < size; i++)

{

printf("Marks student %d:",i + 1);

scanf("%f",&marks[i]);

}

}

float calc_average(float marks[ ])

{

float total = 0.0;

int i;

for (i = 0; i < size; i++)

{

total = total + marks[i];

}

return (total / size);

}

prepared by NI, edited by MAF

example 2 parameter received as pointers

Observe the function prototypes

Example 2: parameter received as pointers
  • A function could also receive/treat array parameter as pointer.

#include <stdio.h>

#define size 10

void get_marks(float *);

float calc_average(float *);

void main(void)

{

float marks[size] = {0.0};

get_marks(marks);

printf("Average for marks given is %f\n", calc_average(marks));

}

prepared by NI, edited by MAF

example 2 parameter received as pointers20

Manipulating the memory address

Pointer variable

Example 2: parameter received as pointers

void get_marks(float *marks)

{

int i;

for (i = 0; i < size; i++, marks++)

{

printf("Marks student %d: ", i + 1);

scanf("%f", marks);

}

}

float calculate_average(float *marks)

{

float total = 0.0;

int i;

for (i = 0; i < size; i++, marks++)

{

total = total + *marks;

}

return (total / size);

}

prepared by NI, edited by MAF

2 dimensional array

int myarray[4][2] = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8};

1

2

3

4

This array has 4 rows and 2

columns.

Four

rows

5

6

7

8

Col 1 Col2

2-Dimensional Array
  • It is possible to create an array which has more than one dimension.
  • For example:
    • 2D array: int array[4][2];
    • 3D array: int array[4][2][10];
  • Graphical representation of a 2D array:

prepared by NI, edited by MAF

2 dimensional array cont
2-Dimensional Array cont…
  • Variable initialization can also be done this way:

int myarray[4][2] = {{1, 2}, {3, 4}, {5, 6}, {7, 8}};

  • This method is less confusing since we can see the rows and columns division more clearly.
  • To initialize a 2D array during execution, we need to use a nested for loop:

for (row = 0; row < 4; row++)

{

for (column = 0; column < 2; column++)

myarray[row][column] = 0;

}

  • Although it is possible to create a multi-dimensional array, arrays above 2-dimensions are rarely used.

prepared by NI, edited by MAF

passing a 2d array to a function
Passing a 2D array to a function
  • When a 2D (or higher dimensional) array is passed to a function, the size of the second (or subsequent) subscript needs to be specified.
    • For example, if we have:

int twoD[4][5];

    • Then the function header which would taketwoD as an argument should be declared like this: void Process2D(int twoD[ ][5])
  • An array is stored consecutively in memory regardless of the number of dimensions. Therefore, specifying the subscripts in the function parameter will help the compiler to know the boundary of the different dimensions.

prepared by NI, edited by MAF

simple searching
Simple Searching
  • Searching is the process of determining whether an array contains a value that matches a certain key value/search key.
  • The process of finding a particular element of an array is called searching.
  • Same as in sort, there are more than one algorithms that can be used to do a search.
  • The most commonly used searching techniques are linear search and binary search.
  • Here, we will discuss to do searching by using linear search on an array.

prepared by NI, edited by MAF

simple searching cont
Simple Searching cont…
  • Search key is a data element of the same type as the list elements.
    • If search key = list element value, the search is said to be successful
    • Otherwise, it is unsuccessful.
  • Linear search is a simple searching algorithm where:
    • data are stored in an array
    • a search key is compared with each elements in the array starting from the first element

prepared by NI, edited by MAF

example
Example

Sample Output:

Enter the number that you want to find: 53

The number 53 is found at index 1

Press any key to continue

void main(void)

{

int list[ ] = {34, 53, 21, 23, 4};

int i, search_key, found = 0;

printf(“Enter the number that you want to find: ”);

scanf(“%d”, &search_key);

for (i = 0; i < 5; i++)

{

if (list[i] = = search_key)

{

found = 1;

printf(“The number %d is found at index %d\n”, search_key, i);

}

}

if (found = = 0)

printf(“The number %d cannot be found in the list\n”,search_key);

}

prepared by NI, edited by MAF

sorting
Sorting
  • Sorting is the process of placing data into a particular order such as ascending or descending.
  • The following example shows the C code for sorting unsorted list to a list sorted in ascending order.
  • Explanation for the working program and the concept behind it will be done during lecture hour… (so please attend the class!!!!).

prepared by NI, edited by MAF

example using simple sort
Example using Simple Sort

#include <stdio.h>

#define size 10

void sort(int [ ]);

void main(void)

{

int index, list[size] = {0};

for (index = 0; index < size; index++) /*array initialisation by user */

{

printf("list[%d]:",index);

scanf("%d",&list[index]);

}

sort(list); /* calling function to sort the array

printf("\nList sorted in ascending order:\n\n");

for (index = 0; index < size; index++)

{

printf("%d\t",list[index]); /* printing the array element */

}

}

prepared by NI, edited by MAF

sorting example cont
Sorting example cont…

void sort(int list[ ])

{

int pivot, checker, temp;

for (pivot = 0; pivot < (size - 1); pivot++)

{

for (checker = (pivot + 1); checker < size; checker++)

{

if (list[checker] < list[pivot])

{

/* swap the elements */

temp = list[pivot] ;

list[pivot] = list[checker];

list[checker] = temp;

}

}

}

}

prepared by NI, edited by MAF

summary
Summary
  • In this chapter, we have looked at:
    • Array declaration and initialization
    • Reading and writing from/to array elements
    • Passing array to function
    • 2 dimensional array
    • Simple search
    • Array sorting

prepared by NI, edited by MAF