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Learning. Chapter 8 Part 2. Operant conditioning. Respondent behavior - occurs as an automatic response to stimulus Behavior operates on the environment producing rewarding or punishing stimuli Law of effect - rewarded behavior is likely to recur. Skinner box. AKA “operant chamber”

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learning

Learning

Chapter 8

Part 2

operant conditioning
Operant conditioning
  • Respondent behavior - occurs as an automatic response to stimulus
  • Behavior operates on the environment producing rewarding or punishing stimuli
  • Law of effect - rewarded behavior is likely to recur
skinner box
Skinner box
  • AKA “operant chamber”
  • Box has bar or lever that animal presses or pecks to release a reward
  • Device to record responses
shaping behavior
Shaping behavior
  • Reinforcers gradually guide actions toward a desired behavior
  • By shaping nonverbal organisms to discriminate between stimuli, a psychologist can also determine what they perceive,(can a dog distinguish colors?)
con t
Con’t
  • Successive approximations = you reward responses that are ever closer to the desired behavior
  • Sometimes we unintentionally reinforce unwanted behaviors (Billy example pg 328)
types of reinforcers
Types of reinforcers
  • Reinforcement = any behavior that strengthens or increases the frequency of a preceding response.
  • Positive reinforcers = tangible rewards, praise or attention.
  • Reinforcers are not always positive
positive reinforcement
Positive reinforcement
  • Presenting a typically pleasurable stimulus after a response
  • Food, praise, attention, approval, money, prizes, etc
negative reinforcement
Negative reinforcement
  • Strengthens response by removing or reducing an aversive, (undesirable),stimulus.
  • Taking aspirin to relieve pain, pushing the snooze button, smoking a cigarette for an addict, studying to reduce test anxiety, etc)
primary and secondary reinforcers
Primary and secondary reinforcers
  • Food when hungry, being relieved of pain, for example = primary
  • Conditioned reinforcers - secondary (ie: learned through association with primary reinfocers) = money, prestige,
  • acknolwlegement
reinforcement schedules
Reinforcement schedules
  • Continuous - learning occurs rapidly but so does extinction
  • Partial (intermittent) - sometimes reinforced, sometimes not
  • Fixed-ratio = behavior reinforced after a set number of times. Ex = give pigeon food ever 3 times it pecks dot
con t1
Con’t
  • Variable-ratio = reinforcers after unpredictable number of responses
  • Ex = give pigeon food after 2 pecks, then 1 peck, then 4 pecks, then 3 pecks, etc
  • gambling
fixed interval
fixed-interval
  • Reinforce after a set amount of time
  • Ex = check mail as delivery time approaches
  • Does not produce steady rate of response (choppy, start-stop)
variable interval
Variable-interval
  • Reinforces first response after varying time
  • Produces slow, steady responding
  • See chart 8.10 on page 331
punishment
punishment
  • Opposite of reinforcement
  • Punishment DECREASES behavior
  • Issues with human punishment
  • Spanked children are at increased risk for aggression and depression.
  • Or - are kids who are aggressive and depressed get spanked more?
punishment implications
Punishment implications
  • Child may avoid behavior only when threat of punishment is near (temporary repression of behavior)
  • Physical punishment may increase that behavior by observing that type of modeling of coping skill.
  • Does not guide one to desirable behavior
skinner
Skinner
  • “what punishment teaches is how to avoid it)
  • Now and then punishment is necessary. Minimal use is best
cognition and operant conditioning
Cognition and operant conditioning
  • Cognitive maps
  • Latent learning
  • Can you recall all of the stores in Rancho strip?
  • Knowing more than you thought you knew is latent learning…learning is apparent only when there is some incentive to demonstrate it
motivation
motivation
  • Intrinsic = desire to perform a behavior effectively for it’s own sake
  • Extrinsic = desire to behave in certain ways to gain external rewards
  • Tiger woods example (not most recent - yikes!)
biological predispositions
Biological predispositions
  • Animals and humans can be trained more easily and retain behavior if it is biologically instinctive.
  • Answer “ask yourself” on page 340
learning by observation
Learning by observation
  • Learning by viewing others
  • Animals do it too
  • Modeling = observing and imitating specific behaviors
  • Mirror neurons - empathy, brain scan
albert bandura
Albert Bandura
  • Bobo doll experiment/aggression
  • Prosocial models also work
  • TV and observational learning
  • Page 345 bullets