Nuclear dna and mitochondrial dna
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Nuclear DNA and Mitochondrial DNA. Nuclear DNA. Present in almost every cell Combination from both parents; 23 chromosomes from each parent. Mitochondrial DNA. Each cell contains thousands of mt, each containing copies of its DNA Mt DNA is in larger quantities in a cell

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Nuclear dna
Nuclear DNA

  • Present in almost every cell

  • Combination from both parents; 23 chromosomes from each parent


Mitochondrial dna
Mitochondrial DNA

  • Each cell contains thousands of mt, each containing copies of its DNA

  • Mt DNA is in larger quantities in a cell

  • Nuclear DNA is larger in size


Mt dna is 16 569 bases in length and consists of 2 different regions
Mt DNA is 16,569 bases in length and consists of 2 different regions

  • Coding Region

    • Produces 13 proteins, 22tRNAs, 2rRNAs needed for cell respiration

    • This region has very little variability

    • So everyone’s DNA in this region will be nearly the same sequence of TGCAs


Coding region dna rna protein trait
Coding Region regionsDNA RNA Protein Trait


Nuclear dna and mitochondrial dna

Control Region regions

This region is highly variable within the human population

Consists of 2 subregions

HV1 = 342 bp HV2 = 268

610 bp with a lot of variability


Mt dna is inherited from mom
Mt DNA is inherited from mom regions

  • Every sibling will get their mt DNA from their mother

  • Why?


Nuclear dna and mitochondrial dna

Why Mom? regions

  • Egg contains 23 chromosomes and cell cytoplasm which contains thousands of maternal mt

  • Sperm contains 23 chromosomes with very little cytoplasm


Zygote fertilized egg
Zygote = Fertilized Egg regions

  • When egg and sperm join only female mt survive and are passed onto to new baby.



Nuclear dna and mitochondrial dna

Mutations occur in the control region of mt DNA at a regular rate and are passed onto children by the mom.


Nuclear dna and mitochondrial dna

How do we use this information? rate and are passed onto children by the mom.

  • We can compare DNA from the controlling region to other living humans

    • See how related to you are to each other

  • Compare to prehistoric remains of human fossils

    • Identify where you DNA originated

    • Identify ancestral relationships between modern populations

  • Compare your highly variable regions to other species


Nuclear dna and mitochondrial dna

Mitochondrial Eve rate and are passed onto children by the mom.

  • Oldest women who would have donated her mtDNA to every ancestor in the world

  • Comparisons can be made by how many variations exist between her DNA and your DNA.


Nuclear dna and mitochondrial dna

How is mtDNA isolated? rate and are passed onto children by the mom.

  • Isolate DNA from cheek cells

  • Complete a PCR reaction

    • Produce millions of extra copies of HV1 on the control region of mtDNA

  • Send amplified DNA away to be sequenced (Identify the exact sequence of TGCAs in HV1 in your mtDNA)

  • Compare your sequence ot classmates and database of prehistoric DNA


Nuclear dna and mitochondrial dna


2 polymerase chain reaction
2. Polymerase Chain Reaction rate and are passed onto children by the mom.

  • PCR


Pcr animation
PCR Animation rate and are passed onto children by the mom.


Pcr animation1
PCR Animation rate and are passed onto children by the mom.


3 sequencing dna identify the exact sequence of nitrogen bases in hv1 region
3. Sequencing DNA rate and are passed onto children by the mom.Identify the exact sequence of nitrogen bases in HV1 region


Sequencing dna
Sequencing DNA rate and are passed onto children by the mom.


4 making comparisons
4. Making Comparisons rate and are passed onto children by the mom.

Using a database you will compare your mt DNA with:

  • your classmates

  • prehistoric DNA taken from fossilized human remains.

  • other species