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Diabetic retinopathy screening NSF-based training. Diabetes Tunde Peto Head of Reading Centre. Diabetes mellitus - pathogenesis, types, management, complications. Key issues for discussion Definition and types of diabetes mellitus

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Diabetic retinopathy screening NSF-based training


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    1. Diabetic retinopathy screening NSF-based training Diabetes Tunde Peto Head of Reading Centre

    2. Diabetes mellitus - pathogenesis, types, management, complications Key issues for discussion • Definition and types of diabetes mellitus • Current medical and surgical management of diabetes mellitus • Acute complications of diabetes mellitus: hypo and hyperglycaemia • Chronic complication of diabetes mellitus: micro- and macrovascular Learning outcomes • Identify types of diabetes and appropriate management strategies • Identify and able to deal with acute complications especially hypoglycaemia • Able to discuss micro- and macrovascular complications competently

    3. Pathogenesis of diabetic eye disease Key issues for discussion • Discuss details of pathogenesis of diabetic eye disease • Discuss the importance of good diabetes and blood pressure control Learning outcome • Able to discuss factors associated with the development and progression of diabetic eye disease

    4. Classification of diabetic eye disease Key issues for discussion • Discuss issues related to diabetes and diabetic retinopathy • Discuss key features of diabetic retinopathy • Discuss the grading systems for diabetic retinopathy and develop an understanding of the severity scale of the diseases Learning outcome • Develop knowledge related to classification of diabetic retinopathy • Use critical appraisal while discussing the features of grading systems in use • Apply the grading system knowledge to teaching slides on diabetic retinopathy

    5. Introduction • Definition, symptoms and diagnosis of DM • Epidemiology of DM • Main aims of management of DM • Costs and prevention of DM • Right and responsibilities in DM • Hypoglycaemia

    6. Definition of diabetes mellitus (DM) • “disease involving a disturbance of metabolism, the underlying cause of which is the defective production or action of the hormone insulin” (WHO Expert Committee, 1985) • Classification of diabetes mellitus is based on this definition

    7. Symptoms and diagnosis of DM • Symptoms • Thirst • Frequent urination especially at night • Tiredness • Sudden change in weight: weight loss • Genital itching and frequent thrush • Blurred vision • Diagnosis • Blood sugar level • Oral glucose tolerance test

    8. Epidemiology of diabetes • The DM epidemic is partly the results of the major public health achievements! • DM 2000: about 151 million people worldwide • DM 2010: about 221 million: 46% increase • The vast majority of the increase will be in the developing countries • Rapid increase in type 2 DM, even in children!! • Type 1 diabetes is the most common chronic disease in children

    9. Main types of diabetes mellitus • Impaired glucose tolerance: unknown number of pts • Results in higher rate of cardiovascular death • Might develop diabetes mellitus • Type 1 diabetes mellitus: ~10% of pts • Usually develops before the age of 40: autoimmune disease • Dependent on insulin injections • Type 2 diabetes mellitus: ~ 90% of pts • Usually develops after the age of 40: metabolic syndrome • Might require insulin injections • Gestational diabetes: unknown number of pts • Develops during pregnancy • Might develop diabetes afterwards

    10. MIDD • Mitochondrial tRNS mutation at 3243 (Alanin-Guanin) • Less severe form: MIDD • Severe form MELAS (mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactacidosis, stroke-syndrome) • Mutation is found in asymptomatic relatives • Maternally inherited, so EVERY single offspring will have the mutant mtlDNS • Accounts for up to 1-2% of all diabetes!!!!

    11. Clinical signs and symptoms • Myopathy • Epilepsy • Recurrentstroke, even in childhood • Neuro-sensory deafness (progrediant) • Ataxia • Retinitis pigmentosa-like clinical picture • Diabetes mellitus • Short stature • Myoclonus, neuropathia, n. opticus atrophia • Rarely glomerulosclerosis

    12. Main aims of management of DM • Improve diabetes control • Prevent the development of diabetes-related complications • Provide better quality of life

    13. Improve diabetes control • Diet and exercise • Type 1 diabetes: life depends on insulin injections • Type 2 diabetes: add tablets to diet and exercise regime • If necessary add insulin injection • Manage BP and blood lipids appropriately • Complications depend on blood sugar level control and control of BP!

    14. Acute and chronic complications • Acute complications • Hypoglycaemia and Hyperglycaemia • Chronic complications • Microvascular • Diabetic retinopathy: eye disease • Diabetic nephropathy: kidney disease, can lead to dyalisis • Diabetic neuropathy: small nerve disease, “pins and needles”, numbness, can contribute to amputations • Autonomic neuropathy: orthostatic hypotension, gastroparesis, impotence, bladder dysfunction, gustatory sweating • Macrovascular • Coronary artery disease, including silent AMI • Cerebrovascular disease: strokes • Peripheral vascular disease: amputations

    15. Who is at risk of complications? • All patients with diabetes are at risk, but: • People with poor diabetes and blood pressure control are at even higher risk • The longer the duration of diabetes the higher the risk, so age at diagnosis is important factor as well • There seems to be a genetic component to risk • Certain ethnic groups, especially migrants are at high risk • Smoking can make complications worse • High risk of retinopathy during pregnancy

    16. Provide better quality of life • These complications affect the patients’ life • Also affect ability to cope with the screening episode, such as unable to come, unable to transfer to chair, (mobility); unable to understand commands, etc • Patients with DM tend to be more depressed • Employment problems • Fear of complications • Ignorance

    17. Costs of DM • Patients are hospitalised more and for longer then pts who do not have the disease • Patients utilise more expensive medical intervention (eg. dyalisis) and for longer period • Need more extensive rehabilitation (stroke, AMI, amputations, blindness)

    18. Prevention of DM • Major lifestyle modifications, especially in pts with impaired glucose tolerance, gestational diabetes and family history • Dealing with auto-immune factors in patients with type 1 diabetes • Needs more education and intervention especially in developing countries and migrant populations

    19. Rights of people with diabetes:UK • International Diabetes Federation 1994: • Never use diabetic as an adjunctive • Exemption: diabetic retinopathy / nephropathy • But: patient with diabetes and NEVER DIABETIC • Healthcare free of charge • Choice of GP • Right to see the medical records/ info in NHS • Right to refuse treatment • Make reasonable complaint against NHS • Full or part refund of the cost of treatment

    20. Rights and responsibilities • Patients should know the members of their health team and the reasons they are included • Patients should receive appropriate education on their disease • Patients should take an active part in the management of their diabetes

    21. Hypoglycaemia • Medical term for blood sugar levels (BSL) below 4 mmol/L • Patients normally call it “ a hypo” • It can happen to anyone! • Symptoms vary greatly • It takes time to develop, so usually you have enough time to react • Except in hypoglycaemia unawareness

    22. Mechanism of hypoglycaemia • Insulin works for lowering BSL by making it available for tissues and storage • Glucagon works for increasing BSL by making the liver release some • Eating food that contains carbohydrates leads to a rise in BSL • This stimulates insulin secretion, and BSL is lowered • If BSL is low, glucagon stimulates release of sugar from stores such as liver

    23. Mechanism of hypoglycaemia 2 • In DM this system does not work well • So, another back-up system comes into play • ADRENALIN is released and it is responsible for the warning signs of a hypo • End-result of a hypo: brain does not get enough sugar, so it cannot function, the patient can die

    24. Causes of hypoglycaemia • Too much insulin / too many tablets • Delayed or missed meals or snacks • Not enough food especially carbohydrate • Unplanned or strenuous exercise • Drinking alcohol without food • No obvious cause

    25. Type 2 diabetes: not on insulin • Occasionally hypo can happen • More frequent in the elderly • More frequent in active people • More frequent in people taking insulin and sulphonylureas • More frequent in people taking Glipizide, Gliclazide, Chlorpopamide, Gliquidone, Glimerpiride, Tolbutamide and Repaglinide

    26. Type 2 diabetes: not on insulin: 2 • Some tablets are unlikely to cause a hypo: Metformin (Glucobay) • People on Acarbose should always be given sg like Lucosade as the absorption of sugar is very slow! • Some other medications such as antibiotics, antidepressants modify the action of the tablets for diabetes

    27. Type 1 diabetes • Hypo is very common in patients with type 1 DM • The better the diabetes control the more common the hypo is • Requires careful balance between insulin – food - exercise • Hypoglycaemia unawareness is more common

    28. Mild hypo: treat yourself stage • Signs and symptoms • Hungry • Trembling and sweating • Irritable, aggressive, unreasonable • Pale, fast pulse, tingling of the limps • Blurring vision • Treatment • Immediate: quick carbohydrate: fruit juice, coke, glucose tablets, sugar, chocolate • Long acting: sandwich, biscuits, cereal, fruit

    29. Severe hypo: cannot treat yourself • Signs and symptoms • Difficulty in concentrating • Confused and vague • Irritable and irrational • Loss of consciousness, fits and coma • Treatment • If conscious and can swallow: Hypostop (sugar gel), honey, treacle or jam inside the mouth and massage gently, once the pt is better, follow up as per mild hypo • If unconscious: if you are trained, use Hypostop etc; if not, place the pt in the recovery position and GET HELP! • Glucagon or iv glucose should only be given by trained personnel • When you get help, always specify that the patient has diabetes!

    30. Other hypos • Hypos at night • Hypos during or following exercise • Hypos following drinking • Hypos while driving • Hypos while pregnant

    31. Screening and hypos • Patients might be very anxious about screening and after initial rise in BSL, they can have a drop • They might miss a meal while waiting • They might have had to alter their daily routine for getting there • They might bring less food than normal

    32. When to suspect a hypo • If patient becomes irrational, loud, agitated for no apparent reason especially if it is mealtime (morning and afternoon tea, lunch) • If patient complains about sudden blurring of the vision and other signs of hypo • Always check what medication the patient is on • Always ask if it is mealtime or not or if they skipped meal to keep their appointment • Keep sugar/honey or Lucosade at Screening van • KNOW how to get help!!!!

    33. Diabetes education • Availability and type of diabetes education varies a great deal between areas • Always ask if the patient had diabetes education or not • Always ask where the patient received their diabetes care, opportunities for education will differ between hospital clinic patients, GP patients • Always consider practise nurse, a lot of them are trained in basic diabetes education

    34. Where to direct the patient to? • Always have a list of available education opportunities for your patients • Consider local guidelines: practice nurses, GPs, diabetes centre, mobile training units • Diabetes UK is an excellent source of information for all patients and they have excellent leaflets and sessions • If the patient is registered blind or visually impaired, ask if they attend the RNIB or local agencies

    35. Summary • Two types of diabetes both diagnosed by blood tests • Vast majority will have type 2 diabetes and will have multiple disabilities • The aim of the screening is to help improve diabetes control, see complication status and help with giving quality of life • DM is a costly disease for which there is no prevention and is difficult to cure • Both patients and health professionals have right and responsibilities in DM • Hypoglycaemia should be prevented and treated appropriately

    36. Summary • Screening: 80-90% of pts have type 2 DM • They will have multiple disabilities, including difficulty of learning or responding to commands • They might not see and/or hear you well! • Do not try to hurry them, they are trying to help you and please you if you are nice to them. • Remember, you are only one of many they need to see because of their diabetes! • After all, have fun screening, you are doing a service that gives them better quality of life.

    37. Diabetic Retinopathy • 200,000 Type 1, > 1 million Type 2 persons with diabetes (PWDs), may double by 2012 • Commonest complication of diabetes mellitus • Commonest cause of blindness in UK between 20 and 55 years of age

    38. Anatomy Choroid Macula Retina Retinal Pigment Epithelium

    39. fovea posterior pole macula branch retinal vein (thicker, darker red) branch retinal artery (thinner, white line down middle)

    40. Diagrammatic cross section of normal macula: the lower of the two capillary circulations is the important one from a clinical standpoint and the one seen on fluorescein angiography fovea foveola B A GCL Inner BRB IPL INL OPL ONL Outer BRB OLM PRC RPE

    41. Pathophysiologya. Proliferative diabetic retinopathy Diabetes VEGF

    42. b. Diabetic maculopathy Retinal location of diabetic macular oedema due to breakdown of blood-retinal barrier GCL IPL INL OPL ONL OLM PRC RPE Cells RPE

    43. Management: Relevant clinical trials • Diabetic Retinopathy: multicentre trials • DCCT (Diabetes Control Complications Trial) • UK PDS (UK Prospective Diabetes Study) • DRS (Diabetic Retinopathy Study) • ETDRS (Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study) • DRVS (Diabetic Retinopathy Vitrectomy Study)

    44. Management: the burden of illness Diabetic Eye Disease Cataract Retinopathy Maculopathy (90% blind registrations) Clinically significant macular oedema Macular ischaemia

    45. Medical management • Glycaemic control DCCT : IDDM : intensive vs conventional control 50% reduction in onset & progression of diabetic retinopathy in the intensive control group

    46. UK PDS: Effect of blood pressure control on 2- step progression of retinopathy

    47. Management: Laser therapy Proliferative diabetic retinopathy • panretinal photocoagulation (PRP) • 2 sessions, 1-2 weeks apart, 2000 shots • may need adjunctive sessions • vitreous haemorrhage and tractional retinal detachment can still occur • extensive treatment may affect ability to drive

    48. Good’ treatment: patients do well and blindness uncommon if treated early enough • Laser treatment “kills” diseased retina • Laser treatment reduces VEGF 6 weeks post treatment 3 months post treatment

    49. Incidence of SVL after PRP for high risk charact-eristic proliferative diabetic retinopathy (DRS)

    50. Macular Oedema • macular laser (ETDRS guidelines) • stabilises visual acuity, few patients improve • laser effect due to • stimulation RPE to ‘pump’ fluid out of the retina • direct closure of leaking spots