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Atoms, Bonding and the Periodic Table. Chapter 5, Section 1. Key Concepts. How is the reactivity of elements related to valence electrons in atoms? What does the periodic table tell you about atoms and the properties of elements?. Key Terms. Valence electrons Electron dot diagram

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key concepts
Key Concepts
  • How is the reactivity of elements related to valence electrons in atoms?
  • What does the periodic table tell you about atoms and the properties of elements?
key terms
Key Terms
  • Valence electrons
  • Electron dot diagram
  • Chemical bond
  • Period
  • Group
  • Family
electrons and energy levels
Electrons and Energy Levels
  • Where are electrons found?
  • Neils Bohr suggested:
  • Electrons have specific amounts of energy leading them to move in specific orbits around the nucleus of the atom
    • Resemble planets orbiting around the sun or like the layers of an onion
cloud of electrons
Cloud of Electrons
  • In the 1920’s scientists determined that electrons do not orbit the nucleus like planets but rather in a cloudlike region.
  • This region is where electrons are likely to be found.
  • An electron movement is related to its energy level or specific amount of energy it has.
valence electrons
Valence Electrons
  • Electrons that have the highest energy levels and are held most loosely are known as the atom’svalence electrons.
  • The number of valence electrons in an atom of an element determines many properties of that element, including the ways in which the atom can bond with other atoms.
electron dot diagram
Electron Dot Diagram
  • Each element has a specific number of valence electrons, ranging from 1 to 8.
  • An electron dot diagram includes the symbol for the element surrounded by dots. Each dot stands for one valence electrons.
quick review
Quick Review:
  • Chemical symbol
    • One or two letters that represents an element.
  • Atomic number
    • Number of protons in the nucleus of an atom.
    • Periodic table is arranged in order of increasing atomic number
  • Period
    • Row of elements across the periodic table
  • Group or Family
    • Elements in the same column
chemical bonds and stability
Chemical Bonds and Stability
  • How is the reactivity of elements related to valence electrons in atoms?
  • Most atoms are more stable – less likely to react – when they have eight valence electrons.
  • What are some examples of elements that are stable?
  • Neon, argon, krypton, and xenon
  • Small atoms such as helium are stable with just two valence electrons – which is why it is found in group 18, noble gases
slide10
How can an atom react to become more stable?
  • Two ways:
  • Either the valence electrons increases to eight (or two in the case of hydrogen)
  • Atom gives up loosely held valence electrons
  • Atoms that react this way become chemically combined or bonded to other atoms – chemical bond.
  • Chemical bondis the force of attraction that holds two atoms together.
chemical bonds and chemical reactions
Chemical Bonds and Chemical Reactions

Chemical bonds may occur two ways:

  • Electrons may be transferred from one atom to another.
  • Electrons may be shared between the atoms.
  • In both cases a chemical reaction takes place and a new substance is formed.
how is the periodic table organized
How is the periodic table organized?
  • Organized by atomic number
  • If you know the atomic number, what else do you know?
  • The periodic table gives you information about the arrangement of electrons in atoms.
  • How do the atoms change from left to right across a period, or row?
  • As the number of protons – or atomic number increases, the number of electrons also increases.
    • As a result, the properties of the elements change in a regular way across a period.
    • A period ends when the number of valence electrons reaches 8 (except for period 1)
reading the periodic table
Reading the Periodic Table
  • What happens when you get to the next period?
  • It will begin with atoms having higher energy.
  • The repeating pattern means that the elements within a group, or column, always have the same number of valence electrons.
  • View the periodic table on page 152 and the electron dot diagrams on page 153.
    • What pattern do you see?
patterns of valence electrons
Patterns of Valence Electrons

Elements in groups 3-12 follow a slightly different pattern.

what does the periodic table tell you about the properties of elements
What does the periodic table tell you about the properties of elements?
  • The elements within a group have similar properties because they all have the same number of valence electrons in their atoms.
noble gases
Noble Gases
  • Noble gases
    • Group 18
    • Have 8 valence electrons
      • Except for Helium which only has 2
    • They do not react easily with other elements – they are stable
reactive nonmetals and metals
Reactive Nonmetals and Metals
  • Group 17
  • Name of the group
  • Halogens
  • How many valence electrons do they have?
  • Seven
  • Will they gain electrons or lose electrons?
  • Gain or share electrons
  • As a result, they will react easily with other elements whose atoms can give up or share electrons.
  • Which group would these elements be found in?
slide18
What group are alkali metals found?
  • Group 1
  • Do alkali metals gain or lose electrons?
  • Alkali metals become chemically more stable by losing their one valence electron
    • This property makes the alkali metals very reactive
  • Which group could these atoms lose their electrons to?
  • Halogens – group 17
    • Seven valence electrons, just one more electron gives these atoms the stable number of eight electrons, like the noble gases
  • For example, sodium chloride
    • Sodium has 1 valence electron
    • Chlorine has 7 valence electrons
  • Alkaline Earth metals, lose electrons easily and are almost as reactive as the Alkali metals.
other metals
Other metals
  • How reactive a metals is, depends on what key factor?
  • Depends on how easily its atoms lose valence electrons.
  • Groups 2-12 are metals, like group 1
  • Most have 1, 2, or 3 valence electrons
    • They react by losing these electrons, especially when they combine with oxygen or one of the halogens.
slide20
Which of the nonmetals are solid at room temperature?
  • Carbon (C), phosphorus (P), sulfur (S), selenium (Se), and iodine (I)
  • Which nonmetal is the only liquid?
  • Bromine (B)
  • Like the halogens, nonmetals may become stable by gaining or sharing electrons
  • Of the nonmetals, only oxygen and the halogens are highly reactive.
  • Is hydrogen a metal or a nonmetal?
  • It is considered a nonmetal. It is in group 1 only because it has one valence electron. Hydrogen’s properties differ greatly from the alkali metals
slide21
Where are the metalloids found on the periodic table?
  • Along the zig zag line between the metals and nonmetals
  • How many valence electrons do metalloids have?
  • Three to six
  • Do the metalloids gain, lose, or share electrons?
  • They can either lose or share electrons when they combine with other elements.