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American History Unit II- U.S. Foreign Affairs. World War II Chapter 26- Clouds of War Section 2- The Battlefield is everywhere. Phoney War . Germans on one side, The French behind the Maginot line The British moving into France. “Phoney War”.

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american history unit ii u s foreign affairs

American HistoryUnit II- U.S. Foreign Affairs

World War II

Chapter 26- Clouds of War

Section 2- The Battlefield is everywhere

phoney war
Phoney War
  • Germans on one side,
  • The French behind the Maginot line
  • The British moving into France.
  • “Phoney War”.
  • Only thing happening was the Soviet attack on Finland, Finns fought bravely but lost.
the new warfare
The New Warfare
  • Blitzkrieg- Lightening war. Strike with lightening speed- planes, tanks, trucks, even motorcycles. Quickly overwhelm the enemy.
  • Airpower made it all possible- striking at the very heart of defenseless nations, transformed warfare
  • April 9, 1940 Hitler ends “phony war” and invades Denmark and Norway.
  • One month later her rushes into Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg, thus bypassing the Maginot line.
  • June 14, 1940 German soldiers march into Paris and France surrenders.
billy mitchell advertises air power
Billy Mitchell advertises air power
  • Few took air power seriously, it was too new.
  • Military ballooning- sport mainly.
  • Mitchell had been impressed what the airplane could do in WWI.
  • Mitchell wanted a entirely new military unit devoted to the airplane.
  • Airpower shifts the targets from enemy armies to “Vital Centers”- industry, supply, and the centers of the enemies will to resist. Rapid strike.
  • Public scared of the idea of destruction from above.
  • Mitchell wrote speeches and articles to alert people.
  • Mitchell gives a demonstration- He arranged to have a German battleship, unmanned or the coast of Virgina (60 miles) sunk by a flight of Mitchell’s bombers. 20 min. to sink the unsinkable ship.
  • But Admirals and Generals still refused to grasp the meaning.
  • Mitchell went to the newspapers and denounced his superiors. Branded almost a traitor, he was court martialed- suspended for five years..
building the airpower
Building the airpower
  • May 21, 1927- Lindbergh makes his historic flight to Paris..
  • 1935- B-17 long range bomber, with Norden bombsight went into the air.
  • William Moffett, pilot and aviation entusiast. Head of the Navy’s branch of airforce.- developed aircraft carriers and using catapult to launch planes from battleships and carriers.
the united states prepares for war
The United States prepares for war
  • U.S. needs to rearm- 50,000 planes in 1941, and every year till Nazi’s are defeated.
  • Billions were asked for to build a two ocean navy.
  • Isolationists still hoped the Neutrality Acts of 1939 would keep us out of war.
battle of britain hitler called it sea lion his plan to invade england
Battle of Britain- Hitler called it “Sea Lion” (his plan to invade England)
  • France had fallen so Great Britain was standing alone against the Nazi, Winston Churchill called “their finest hour”.
  • Hitler sent bombers to bomb British cites during the summer and fall of 1939- the idea was to force the British to surrender.
  • Factors in the British favor
    • Ultra- intercepted and decoded Germany secret messages.
    • RADAR- Radio, detecting, and ranging- They knew when the Germans are coming and where they would be. They could move the small RAF around and intercept the German bombers.
  • British still had horrible losses. Even with Ultra- Conventry was bombed and many died.
  • Germans forced to postponed the invasion.
world affairs and the presidential campaign of 1940
World affairs and the presidential campaign of 1940
  • Wilkie vs. FDR
  • Wilkie opposed the New Deal, but also wanted to help Great Britain and the draft.
  • Wilkie became reckless in his attacks and FDR reckless in his responces about sending the boys to war.
  • FDR won easily but not as large as before.- but 1st president to be elected to three terms.
destroyers for bases deal
Destroyers for Bases Deal
  • To get around the laws on helping beligerents, FDR approved the selling of American military equipment to private companies the were buying for the British.
  • Churchill wanted U.S. destroyers to protect ships at sea and supplies.
  • President devised the “Destroyers for bases deal”- we transferred 50 old but useful destroyers to Great Britain in exchange for the use of 8 British naval bases in the Atlantic. Britain was to never surrender this fleet to Hitler.
helping the british
Helping the British
  • England out of cash for Cash and Carry. With Neutrality law in place FDR could not help the English and they would surely lose the war.
  • Lend-Lease- clever plan- we would offer to lease (lend) to countries whose defense was considered vital to the defense of the U.S.
  • British would not need cash to get the supplies.
four freedoms speech
Four Freedoms Speech
  • freedom of speech
  • freedom of religion
  • freedom from want
  • freedom from fear
atlantic charter
Atlantic Charter

Meeting of Churchill and FDR off Newfoundland.

Up-to-date version of Wilson’s 14 points.