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DOE/NV/25946--1467. Working with FRMAC During an IPX. RaJah Mena FRMAC Senior Scientist Remote Sensing Laboratory Presented to NREP April 23, 2012. This work was done by National Security Technologies, LLC, under Contract No. DE‑AC52‑06NA25946 with the U.S. Department of Energy. Topics.

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Working with FRMAC During an IPX

RaJah Mena

FRMAC Senior Scientist

Remote Sensing Laboratory

Presented to


April 23, 2012

This work was done by National Security Technologies, LLC, under Contract No. DE‑AC52‑06NA25946 with the U.S. Department of Energy.

  • General introduction to FRMAC
  • How FRMAC supports IPX objectives
  • Levels of FRMAC support
  • What do we get out of this?
  • What do we need to do?
introduction to frmac
Introduction to FRMAC

Assist the states in their mission to protect the health and well being of their citizens:

  • Provide initial prediction based on source term estimate
    • In conjunction with the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center
  • Verify and validate prediction based on ground monitoring data and fixed-wing surveys
  • Comprehensive characterization of environmental and public impacts based on ground monitoring, sampling and analysis, and rotary-wing survey data
federal response
Federal Response
  • Regardless of the Coordinating Agency
    • DOE coordinates radiological monitoring and assessment activities for the emergency and intermediate phases
    • EPA coordinates the intermediate to long-term activities for radiological monitoring and assessment
  • Advisory Team (EPA, CDC, FDA, USDA)
    • Provides PARs to the State / Local / Tribal representatives
  • FRMAC (Multi-Agency)
    • Coordinates monitoring, analysis, and assessment
    • Provides data products to the State / Local / Tribal representatives
doe involvement
DOE Involvement
  • DOE participates in 8-10 exercises per year
  • Standard level of participation
    • Planning conference calls and meetings
    • Outreach (1 assessment scientist)
      • Presentation
      • Tabletop exercise
    • IPX (1-2 assessment scientists)
      • Data products
      • Exercise play
doe involvement1
DOE Involvement
  • Enhanced participation
    • Technical Training (1 monitoring supervisor)
      • Equipment training
      • FRMAC monitoring and sampling procedures
    • Assessment Training (1 assessment scientist)
    • Drill (1 assessment scientist)
      • Provide guidance during drill
      • Inject map products
      • Cover Advance Party Meeting Checklist
    • AMS Flyover (fixed wing crew)
      • King Air B200 flown during exercise
      • Show and tell of aircraft
    • CMRT I Deployment (typically a reduced team)
      • Field team play
      • Real time data
      • Real time products
frmac activities during the ipx process
FRMAC Activities During the IPX Process

At least 18 months to 2 years in advance

  • Initial meeting
    • NREP
    • NRC training
  • Conference calls
    • At least 2 scheduled prior to any real work done
    • Where contacts are identified
  • Federal Outreach
    • Presentations from members of the “federal family”
    • Dry run TTX of IPX process
  • Drill
    • Full practice run through
    • FEMA may conduct courtesy evaluation
  • IPX

As often as necessary

1–2 months prior to exercise

About one month prior to exercise

frmac assistance and fema objectives
FRMAC Assistance and FEMA Objectives
  • Assistance available for many of the objectives
  • Objectives test more than utility and state capabilities
  • Notional play can be beneficial to meet objectives
six major criteria
1. Emergency Operations Management

2. Protective Action Decision-Making

3. Protective Action Implementation

4. Field Measurement and Analysis

5. Emergency Notification and Public Information

6. Support Operations/Facilities

Six Major Criteria
2 protective action decision making
2. Protective Action Decision Making
  • 2.a.1 Worker Safety
  • CMHT connection with other federal assets
  • Dose projections and early data assessment
  • 2.d.1 Ingestion Pathway Assessment
  • Nuclide specific models
  • Via Advisory Team – agricultural advice
  • Assessment Scientists for radiological assistance
  • 2.e.1 Relocation, reentry, and return decisions
  • Map products utilizing models and data
  • Assessment Scientists to assistance with data
  • Map products of aerial surveys
3 protective action decision making
3. Protective Action Decision Making
  • 3.c Implementation of protective action decisions for special populations
  • Custom map products can be generated with features indicating locations of special population locations
  • National database can be queried for additional data
  • Specific local data can be added

3.f.1 Implementation of relocation, reentry, and return decisions

  • Maps can be generated to assist with route design or sector designation
  • FRMAC field team members can assist with monitoring requests to assist with reentry of agricultural workers and other persons
4 field measurement and analysis
4. Field Measurement and Analysis
  • Criterion covers entire gambit of sampling and measuring
  • FRMAC can provide
    • Personnel to support up to 20 field teams
    • Equipment for those teams
    • Sample receipt and control
    • Some field counting
    • Sample shipment to offsite labs
6 support operation facilities
6. Support Operation/Facilities
  • 6.b.1 Decontamination and monitoring of personnel and vehicles
standard map product set
Standard Map Product Set
  • Relocation
    • Used to assist the players in determining what regions might need to be relocated
      • EPA or state specific guidance
  • AMS B-200 Flyover
    • Data generated flight path based on model projection
    • Used by the players to confirm the initial relocation results
  • Mature Produce Crops and Dairy (2 maps)
    • Typically used by the players to make a sampling plan
    • Assists players in embargo decisions
    • FDA guidance based on Cs-134/137 and I-131
  • Integrated Dose
    • Used by the players in re-entry/return decision-making
the frmac development process
The FRMAC Development Process
  • Funnel defined source term information through NARAC
  • Acquire deposition models for evacuation, relocation, and ingestion PAG maps
  • Create infrastructure and sample point overlays
  • Use the NARAC deposition models and specified overlays to create appropriate FRMAC map products
  • Use underlying deposition data to provide pertinent sample information
  • Use a flight simulator to produce a sample B200 flyover map
  • Concerns
    • Evacuation ~ 3–5 miles
    • Relocation ~ 10 miles
    • Ingestion ≤ 50 miles
  • Evacuation often the driver
  • Avoidable dose concept
  • Plume passage or no plume passage?
  • Multiple NARAC runs not uncommon
initiating process
Initiating Process
  • Data required from the state/utility planners
    • Meteorological data
      • Canned
      • Real
    • Winds
      • Static
      • Stability class
      • Wind changes?
    • Source Term details
      • Release rates in 15 minute increments
      • Typically 2 hour span
      • Mix of particulates, iodines, and nobles varies greatly
      • NUREG-1465 and NUREG-1228
    • State specific limits, if applicable
example exercise
Example Exercise
  • Wind from 130°
  • Wind speed = 5 mph
  • Stability class E
  • Release 0915–1115
  • NUREG-1465 used as template
  • Over 60 nuclides
agricultural areas of concern for i 131
Agricultural Areas of Concern for I-131

I-131 Food Contamination Areas of Concern

(Ingestion DRLs Corresponding to FDA DILS)

agricultural areas of concern for cs 137
Agricultural Areas of Concern for Cs-137

Cs-137 Food Contamination Areas of Concern

(Ingestion DRLs Corresponding to FDA DILS)

evacuation shelter in place

Radiological Release Early Phase PAGs Evacuation/Sheltering based on TEDE 12-108 hr

refinement process
Refinement Process
  • Shortfalls
    • Evacuation/Shelter-in-Place falls short
    • Extensive iodine concentration
  • Caution on Cs-137
  • State/Utility Options
    • Alter scenario to include filters and scrubbers
    • Change met
    • Increase nobles
    • Increase particulates
    • Include plume passage
source term statistics
Source Term Statistics
  • Average number of nuclides 21
  • Wind speed varies 4–8 mph
  • Stability classes C–E
  • Average duration of release 2 hours
  • Wind shifts and precipitation rare
guidance used
Guidance Used
  • FRMAC Assessment Manual
    • TurboFRMAC
    • FDA 1998
    • FDA 2001
  • Typical states
    • EPA 400-92-R
    • FDA 1998
  • Other
resources and getting started
Resources and Getting Started

FRMAC Program Information and Manuals


Colleen O’Laughlin

NNSA / NSO - 702-295-0648