Blood vessels
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Blood Vessels. Vessels. Arteries Strong elastic vessels that carry blood away from the heart Smallest ones are called arterioles – connect to capillaries Veins Thinner, less muscular vessels that carry blood toward the heart Smallest ones are called venules – connect to capillaries

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Vessels
Vessels

  • Arteries

    • Strong elastic vessels that carry blood away from the heart

    • Smallest ones are called arterioles – connect to capillaries

  • Veins

    • Thinner, less muscular vessels that carry blood toward the heart

    • Smallest ones are called venules – connect to capillaries

    • Contain valves

  • Capillaries

    • Penetrate nearly all tissues

    • Walls are single-layered squamous cells

    • Very thin

    • Function: allow gas/nutrient/waste exchange


Control of blood flow
Control of Blood Flow

  • Precapillary sphincters

    • Circular, valve-like muscle at arteriole-capillary junction

  • Vasoconstriction

    • Narrowing blood vessels’ lumen (passageway)

  • Vasodilation

    • Expanding blood vessel’ lumen


Control of blood flow1
Control of Blood Flow

  • Through veins – very inefficient

  • Slow, weak arteriole pushing doesn’t help much

  • What helps

    • Contraction of diaphragm

    • Pumping action of skeletal muscles

    • Valves


Blood pressure
Blood Pressure

  • Average is 120/80 (systolic/diastolic)


Major blood vessels
Major Blood Vessels

  • Aorta – largest artery, leaves heart from LV

    • Ascending aorta, aortic arch, descending aorta, abdominal aorta

  • Pulmonary Trunk

    • Leaves RV

    • Splits left and right and lead to lungs

  • Pulmonary Veins

    • Return blood from lungs to heart

    • Connects to LA

  • Superior and inferior vena cava

    • return blood from head (superior) and body (inferior) to the heart

    • Connects at RA


Disorders
Disorders

  • MVP – mitral valve prolapse – mitral valve doesn’t close all the way; creates a clicking sound at the end of the cardiac cycle

  • Heart murmurs – valves do not close completely; causing a harmless sound


Disorders1
Disorders

  • Myocardial infarction – a blood clot obstructs a coronary artery – commonly called a heart attack

  • Hypertension – high blood pressure, force within arteries is too high


Disorders2
Disorders

  • Atherosclerosis

    • Deposits of fatty materials (cholesterol) which form a plaque and block blood flow

    • Treatment:

      • Insertion of catheter and balloon to open the vessels

      • Can also do a bypass

        • Vein is inserted to replace the artery to supply blood to the heart