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Information Systems Analysis and Design. Chapter Contents. Section A: Information Systems Section B: Systems Analysis Section C: System Design Section D: Implementation and Maintenance. Section A: Information Systems. Information Systems in Organizations Transaction Processing Systems

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chapter contents
Chapter Contents
  • Section A: Information Systems
  • Section B: Systems Analysis
  • Section C: System Design
  • Section D: Implementation and Maintenance
section a information systems
Section A: Information Systems
  • Information Systems in Organizations
  • Transaction Processing Systems
  • Management Information Systems
  • Decision Support Systems
  • Expert Systems and Neural Networks
information systems in organizations
Information Systems in Organizations
  • An information system collects, stores, and processes data to provide useful, accurate, and timely information
  • An organization is a group of people working together to accomplish a goal
    • Business
    • Nonprofit organization
    • Mission
      • Mission statement
information systems in organizations1
Information Systems in Organizations
  • Organizational charts depict the hierarchy of employees in an organization
information systems in organizations2
Information Systems in Organizations
  • Information systems can:
    • Automate routine tasks
    • Solve problems
      • Structured problem
      • Semi-structured problem
      • Unstructured problem
    • Collect and store internal or external information
transaction processing systems
Transaction Processing Systems
  • Provides a way to collect, process, store, display, modify, or cancel transactions
    • Point-of-sale systems
    • General accounting systems
    • Payroll systems
    • Order-entry / invoice systems
  • Batch processing vs. online processing
    • OLTP system
  • Detail reports
transaction processing systems1
Transaction Processing Systems
  • A transaction processing system (TPS) is characterized by
  • its ability to:
  • Collect, display, and modify transactions
  • Store transactions
  • List transactions
  • CLICK TO START
management information systems
Management Information Systems
  • A management information
  • system is characterized by its ability to:
  • Produce routine and on-demand reports
  • Provide useful information for managerial activities
  • Increase managerial efficiency
  • Provide information used for structured, routine decisions
  • CLICK TO START
decision support systems
Decision Support Systems
  • Helps people make decisions by directly manipulating data, analyzing data from external sources, generating statistical projections, and creating data models of various scenarios
    • Executive information system
  • DSSs design decision models and make decision queries
expert systems and neural networks
Expert Systems and Neural Networks
  • Expert systems are designed to analyze data and produce a recommendation, diagnosis, or decision based on a set of facts and rules
    • Knowledge base
      • Inference engine
      • Knowledge engineering
    • Expert system shell
    • Fuzzy logic
  • A neural network uses computer circuitry to simulate the way a brain might process information, learn, and remember
expert systems and neural networks1
Expert Systems and Neural Networks
  • An expert system is characterized by its ability to:
  • Replicate the reasoning of a human expert
  • Work with internal or external data
  • Produce a recommendation or decision
  • CLICK TO START
section b systems analysis
Section B: Systems Analysis
  • System Development Life Cycle
  • Planning Phase
  • Project Justification
  • Analysis Phase
  • System Requirements
system development life cycle1
System Development Life Cycle
  • Modified waterfall SDLC
  • Iterative SDLC
planning phase
Planning Phase
  • Create a Project Development Plan
  • Project management software
  • Joint application design (JAD)
project justification
Project Justification
  • Usually emerges from a serious problem with the current system

Michael Porter’s Five Forces model illustrates the factors

that affect competition among

business rivals.

CLICK TO START

project justification1
Project Justification
  • An organization must be able to:
    • Make improvements
    • Change the industry
    • Create new products
  • The PIECES framework helps classify problems in an information system
project justification2
Project Justification
  • Development methodologies
    • Structured methodology
    • Information engineering methodology
    • Object-oriented methodology
    • Rapid application development
analysis phase
Analysis Phase
  • Produce a list of requirements for a new or revised information system
  • Analysis phase activities
    • Study the current system
    • Determine system requirements
    • Write requirements report
system requirements
System Requirements
  • Criteria for successfully solving problems identified in an information system
    • Success factors
  • A CASE tool can:
    • Document system requirements
    • Diagram current and proposed information systems
    • Schedule development tasks
    • Develop computer programs
system requirements1
System Requirements

CASE tools help project

team members manage

all the details of system

documentation. In this

example, the project

team is defining fields for

the Inventory object

depicted on the diagram.

CLICK TO START

system requirements2
System Requirements
  • A System Requirements Report describes the objects for an information system
section c system design
Section C: System Design
  • Design Phase
  • Evaluation and Selection
  • Application Specifications
design phase
Design Phase
  • The project team must figure out how the new system will fulfill the requirements in the specified in the System Requirements Report
design phase1
Design Phase
  • Consider the following when evaluating hardware alternatives
    • Level of automation and computerization
    • Processing methodology
      • Centralized processing
      • Distributed processing
    • Network technology
design phase2
Design Phase
  • Software alternatives
    • Programming language
    • Application development tool
    • Commercial software
    • Turnkey system
evaluation and selection
Evaluation and Selection
  • Decision support worksheet
evaluation and selection1
Evaluation and Selection
  • A request for proposal (RFP) describes the information system problem and the requirements for the solution
evaluation and selection2
Evaluation and Selection
  • A request for quotation (RFQ) is a request for a formal price quotation on a list of hardware and software
application specifications
Application Specifications
  • Describe the way the information system’s software should interact with users, store data, process data, and format reports
  • Feature creep refers to the failure to constrain change
  • Changes should be managed formally, including written change requests
section d implementation and maintenance
Section D: Implementation and Maintenance
  • Implementation Phase
  • Development and Testing
  • Documentation and Training
  • Conversion and Cutover
  • Maintenance Phase
implementation phase
Implementation Phase
  • Project team supervises the tasks necessary to construct the new information system
development and testing
Development and Testing
  • Software customization is the process of modifying a commercial application to reflect an organization’s needs
  • Application testing is performed in three ways:
    • Unit testing
    • Integration testing
      • Test area
    • System testing
documentation and training
Documentation and Training
  • System documentation
    • Describes a system’s features, hardware architecture, and programming
  • User documentation
    • Describes how to interact with the system to accomplish specific tasks
    • Procedure handbook
      • Contains step-by-step instructions for performing specific tasks
conversion and cutover
Conversion and Cutover
  • System conversion
    • Deactivating an old information system and activating a new one
    • Several conversion strategies:
      • Direct conversion
      • Parallel conversion
      • Phased conversion
      • Pilot conversion
  • Acceptance testing is designed to verify that the new information system works as required
maintenance phase
Maintenance Phase
  • Involves day-to-day operation of the system, making modifications to improve performance, and correcting problems
  • Security is a top priority as well as an ongoing activity
maintenance phase1
Maintenance Phase
  • The system operator is responsible for operating the computer on a day-to-day basis
  • The systems programmer installs new versus of the operating system and modifies settings to maximize performance
  • The help desk is staffed by technical support specialists who are familiar with the information system and record problems and solutions
maintenance phase2
Maintenance Phase
  • Maintenance phase costs