Chapter 4 The Earth’s Atmosphere
Chapter 4 Study Guide 1.Describe the composition of the atmosphere. 2. Explain why there are different layers in the atmosphere. Describe the vertical layering of the atmosphere. Know the names of the different layers from the Earth’s surface up. 3. Distinguish between weather, climate, meteorology and climatology. 4. Describe in depth the controls to weather and climate. 5. Describe the energy budget. 6. Determine the amount of insolation which reaches the earth's surface, and how much insolation is absorbed by the ozone, and water vapor in clouds. 7. Compare the wavelengths of radiation emitted by the sun and radiation emitted by the earth. 8. Describe the process of energy transfer by conduction, convection and latent heat of condensation.
Study Guide Continued 9. Describe the greenhouse effect. 10. Calculate temperature using the formulas for Celsius and Fahrenheit. 11. Describe daily temperature lag and annual temperature lag. 12. Describe albedo. Give examples of things with high albedo and low albedo. 13. Describe in detail the methods of heat transfer. 14. Define adiabatic cooling. 15. Predict when we will have a temperature inversion in Southern California.
Chapter 4 • What is the difference between weather and climate?
Composition of Atmosphere • Earth’s atmosphere composed of many gases (Percent of mass) • Nitrogen 78.8 % • Oxygen 20.95 % • Argon 0.93 % • Carbon Dioxide 0.037 % • Ozone (trace) • Hydrogen (trace) • Other inert gases (trace) Table 4.1
Vertical Layering of Atmosphere • Layers based on temperature and rates of temperature change. • The higher the altitude the thinner the air. • Where is the troposphere? Fig. 4.7
Controls of Weather and Climate • Latitude • Land and water distribution • Ocean currents • Altitude • Landform barriers • Human activities
Latitude higher latitude= get lower temperatures • lower latitude = higher temperatures. • Why?
Land and water distribution • Specific heat • Water is slow to change its temperature compared to land. • Temperature difference Seattle,Washington and Minneapolis Minnesota. • Why?
Ocean currents Warm and cold ocean currents affect the temperature of the atmosphere above. Ocean current movements are the Earth’s systems reaching a balance.
Altitude and Landform Barriers Altitude—Within Troposphere—increase in altitude decrease in temperature. Go to mountains what happens? Landform barriers--mountain ranges Human activities?
Heat transfer • Convection currents • Conduction • Latent heat of condensation • Radiation • Advection
Conduction • Heat transfer by direct contact—hand on stove. • Caused by collisions of molecules. Heat passes from the warmer to the cooler until they attain the same temperature. • What are good conductors? Poor conductors?
Latent heat of condensation • Latent heat of condensation • Evaporation • Condensation
Radiation Radiation- Process by which electromagnetic radiation is emitted from an object.
Advection • Horizontal heat transfer by winds and ocean currents.
Greenhouse Effect Fig. 4.4
Greenhouse effect Greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide and water vapor What is global warming?
Adiabatic cooling • For every 1000 meters of altitude the temperature decreases an average of 6.5ºC/1000 meters. Or in our system 3.6º F / 1000 ft. • Why? • environmental lapse rate.
48% reaches earth surface Energy budget 19% ozone layer 4.10
Chapter 4 • Heat versus temperature • Daily temperature lag and annual temperature lags • Albedo? • Converting F to ºC. • Isotherms?
The Carbon Cycle (Terrestrial) Atmosphere (mainly carbon dioxide) volcanic action combustion of wood (for clearing land; or for fuel photosynthesis aerobic respiration Terrestrial rocks sedimentation weathering Land food webs producers, consumers, decomposers, detritivores soil/water Peat, fossil fuels Global Warming death, burial, compaction over geologic time leaching runoff 1 Fig. 3-27
The Carbon Cycle (Aquatic) diffusion between atmosphere and ocean combustion of fossil fuels Carbon dioxide dissolved in ocean water photosynthesis aerobic respiration Marine food webs producers, consumers, decomposers, detritivores uplifting over geologic time incorporation into sediments death, sedimentation sedimentation Marine sediments, including formations with fossil fuels Fig. 3.27