Creating Plans Macro and Micro
Agenda • Macro Plans • Micro Plans • Motivation • Unit Structures • Lesson Structures
Your Macro Plan • Situation and Context • review what is there • address gaps • Vision and Broad Philosophy • signature of the program • based on sound pedagogy • Goals and Specific Objectives • keep the end in mind • short term and long term • Activities including timeline • realistic • Assessment • what should be the impact
TechSoup’s Common Training Mistakes (macro and micro) • Unclear objectives • No lead time • Do not solicit feedback from stakeholders • Training techniques don’t match the institution • Common courtesies • Diversions • Physical (or virtual) surroundings • Ill prepared
Literature on Learning Says • Students come with preconceptions about how the world works. If teachers don’t build on this understanding -> fail to grasp concept • Students must have a deep understanding and comprehension of the facts before they can reorganize it • A metacognitive approach to learning Report from: National Research Council (2000) How people learn: Brain Mind, Experience, and School
What Motivates Us? • Maslow’s Needs Theory • Achievement Motivation • Curiosity as Motivation • Attribution Theory – Intrinsic or Extrinsic Orientation • Expectancy-Value Theory* • Flow Theory*
Expectancy-Value Theory (Vroom 1964; Porter and Lawler 1968; Keller 1983) • “Effort” is the motivational outcome • Two requirements • Value the learning task • Believe in success of accomplishing the learning (Ruth V. Small, “Motivation in Instructional Design”)
Flow Theory Anxiety Flow Task Difficulty Boredom Apathy Competence or Skill
Discussion • Recall a time when you were highly motivated in a school/training/learning situation? Can you identify what motivated you? • Recall a time when you were extremely unmotivated in a school/training/learning situation? Can you identify factors that contributed to your lack of motivation.
Diversity and Engagement Deficit Thinking Funds of Knowledge the historically accumulated and culturally developed bodies of knowledge and skills essential for household or individual functioning and well-being • Neohereditarianism • Culture of poverty paradigm • Theses of cultural and environmental deficits • Tour/detour approach For more on “funds of knowledge”, look at researcher Luis Moll
Unit Structure 2 Models
Backwards Design ProcessUnderstanding by Design by Wiggins & McTighe • Identify desired results. • Determine acceptable evidence. • Plan learning experiences and instruction.
Identify desired results • What should students know, understand, and be able to do? • What is worthy of understanding? • What enduring understandings are desired? • Consider • Goals of instruction • Examine content standards • Review curricular expectations • Teacher/students interests
Determine acceptable evidence • How will we know if students have achieved the desired results and met the standards? • What will we accept as evidence of student understanding and proficiency? • Consider: • A range of assessment methods — informal and formal • Think like assessors to determine how/whether students have attained desired understandings
Plan learning experiences and instruction • What enabling knowledge (facts, concepts, and principles) and skills (procedures) will students need to perform effectively and achieve desired results? • What activities will equip students with the needed knowledge and skills? • What will need to be taught and coached, and how should it best be taught in light of performance goals? • What materials and resources are best suited to accomplish these goals? • Is the overall design coherent and effective?
Teaching for UnderstandingHarvard Graduate School of Education Four Central Questions about Teaching TfU Elements Generative Topics Understanding Goals (and Throughlines) Performances of Understanding Ongoing Assessment • What topics are worth understanding? • What about these topics needs to be understood? • How can we foster understanding? • How can we tell what students understand?
Throughlines(or overarching goals) • Capture what you believe to be the most important things for students to learn in your class • Phrased as questions and as statements (such as "Students will understand ..." or "Students will appreciate ...") • Relate closely to generative topics and understanding goals for the units you want to create or have created
Throughlines examples • For an American history course: "How does our historical past make us who we are today?“ • For a general science course: "Students will understand that 'doing science' is not the process of finding facts but of constructing and testing theories.“ • For an algebra course: "How can we use what we know to figure out what we don't know?“ • For a literature course: "Students will understand how metaphors shape the way we experience the world.“ • For information literacy/library: ??
Generative Topics • Represent fundamental concepts or themes in your domain • Interesting and exciting to students • Interesting and exciting to you • Provides opportunities for students to make connections to other classes as well as life outside of school • Has related resources and materials to make the topic accessible to students • Presented in engaging ways to your students
Generative Topics examples • In biology: the definition of life, rain forests, dinosaurs, endangered species, global warming. • In mathematics: the concept of zero, patterns, equality, representations in signs and symbols, size and scale. • In history: maritime disasters, survival, revolution, conflict, power. • In literature: interpreting texts, folktales, humor, multiple perspectives. • For information literacy/library: ??
Understanding Goals • Clear goals • Manageable number to assess • Closely related to throughlines • Focused on central aspects of generative topics • Capture what you think is most important for students to understand about the generative topics • Take the form of a question and a statement
Understanding Goals examples • For a history unit with generative topic "Freedom at a Cost: Understanding the Bill of Rights": "Students will understand the relationship between rights and responsibilities in a democratic society." • For a geometry unit with the generative topic "Finding Out What's True: Proofs in Mathematics": "Students will develop their understanding of both inductive and deductive approaches to proving various statements (for examples, that two triangles are congruent, that two lines are parallel, and so on)." • For a literature unit with the generative topic "Whodunits and How They're Done": "Students will understand how authors create, develop, and sustain suspense in a plot." • For a biology unit with the generative topic "The Meaning of 'Life'": "Students will understand how a biologist distinguishes between living and nonliving things." • For information literacy/library: ??
Performances of Understanding • Require students to demonstrate the understandings stated in your understanding goals • Call for students to apply learning in new situations • Allow students to build and demonstrate understanding • Challenge students' misconceptions, stereotypes, and tendencies toward rigid thinking • Sequenced so that students can engage in them throughout the unit, from beginning to end • Allow students to demonstrate their understanding in a variety of ways (written work, artistic endeavors, and so on) • Events in which students are creatively thinking and doing with their knowledge
Performances of Understanding example • For an English unit with the understanding goal "Students will understand how to detect the clues (both obvious and subtle) that authors give about what their characters are like": Students pick one event described by Charlotte in The True Confessions of Charlotte Doyle. First they write down all the things they can tell about Charlotte from the way she describes the event. Then they compare their answers with those of their classmates, noting and discussing the differences in interpretation. Second, students pick two other characters involved in that event and make up an entry for each of these characters' diaries. The object is for students to weave into each entry clues that will help readers understand who these characters are. • For information literacy/library: ??
Ongoing Assessment • Clear, public criteria • Criteria closely related to understanding goals • Frequent opportunities for feedback throughout the unit's performances • Provide feedback that tells students how well they are doing and how to do better • Offer opportunities for multiple perspectives- teacher assessing student - students assessing one another - students assessing themselves • Mix of formal and informal feedback • Cycles of feedback which helps students build understandings over time
Ongoing Assessment example Writing Class: • Criteria for ongoing assessment: Teacher and students co-develop the criteria for the essay. To do this, the teacher presents students with two brief sample essays written about the same issue. The first argues the thesis effectively; the other is noticeably less-well executed. By comparing the two, the students (with guidance from the teacher) generate the criteria for a good persuasive essay (a clear position statement, concrete examples to support the position, a consideration and refutation of counter arguments, and so on). The teacher copies the list of criteria for each student in the class so that they can use it in the feedback process. • Feedback for ongoing assessment: Using the criteria sheet, students complete a first draft of their essay and write a short reflection assessing it. They share this draft with a classmate, who also provides a short written piece that reflects on how well the essay meets the criteria. Equipped with these two reflections, students revise their essays and submit final drafts to the teacher. Both the teacher and the student assess the final work of the essay by rating—on a scale of one to ten—how well the student achieved each of the criteria and writing a brief explanation of the rating. Information Literacy/Library??
Lesson Structure Components and models
A Structure for Instruction TEACHER RESPONSIBILITY Focus Lesson “I do it” Guided Instruction “We do it” “You do it together” Collaborative “You do it alone” Independent STUDENT RESPONSIBILITY A Structure for Instruction that Works (c) Nancy Frey & Douglas Fisher, 2006
Example: Reading/Writing Workshop Lesson • Mini-Lesson • 10 minutes • Direct instruction • Demonstration of strategy • Quick, guided practice • Independent work time • Conferences • Small group work • Share session • Feedback • Build upon or expand strategy • Plans for next steps
ARCS Model [A]ttention—curiosity and interest [R]elevance—needs, interests, and motives [C]onfidence—students develop a positive expectation for successful achievement of a learning task [S]atisfaction—the instructor manages extrinsic and intrinsic reinforcement (Keller, 1983)
Attention (or “The Hook”) • Perceptual: novelty, surprise, incongruity, or uncertainty • Sealed box with question mark • String drawn bag • Inquiry: Posing questions, problems, mystery • Brainstorm • Variability: Incorporate a range methods and materials • Group work • Articles and/or books • Films • Cartoons • Stories • Debate • Discussions
Relevance • Goal Orientation: • Clear Objectives and purpose for the lesson • Motive matching: • Matching to students needs and motives • Vary the way you allow students to present information • Familiarity: • Relate learning to learners experience
Confidence (for the student) • Learning requirements • Inform students about performance • Objectives clear • Pre requisites • Success opportunities • Provide challenging and meaningful opportunities • Increased level of difficulty • Personal responsibility • Link learning to student effort • Realistic expectations • Learner controlled elements • Opportunities for independence
Satisfaction • Intrinsic • Encouragement and enjoyment • Extrinsic • Positive reinforcement • Equity • Maintain standards and be fair
A couple notes on Lesson Plans • There are lots and lots of sample lesson plans online! • Keep best practices in mind • The form you fill out versus what actually happens
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