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Learning for the Future HKU Graduate Association Education Foundation 4 th Public Conference. Lee Wing On National Institute of Education Singapore. OECD Schooling For Tomorrow : Emerging models of learning and innovation (2006). The “status quo extrapolated”.

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learning for the future hku graduate association education foundation 4 th public conference
Learning for the FutureHKU Graduate Association Education Foundation 4th Public Conference

Lee Wing On

National Institute of Education


the status quo extrapolated
The “status quo extrapolated”
  • The first two scenarios project from existing features or trends. Scenario 1 posits the continuation of bureaucratic institutionalised systems, resisting radical change but fulfilling important hidden social functions. Seconario 2 delineates futures where existing market approaches to education are extended much further than today, with both positive and negative results.
the re schooling scenarios
The “re-schooling” scenarios
  • Two “re-schooling” scenarios describe a strengthening of schools’ public recognition, support and autonomy. In Scenario 3, this comes from schools developing much more powerful social links and community leadership functions. In scenario 4, most schools have become flexible “learning organizations” with a strong powerful focus and highly motivated teachers.
the de schooling senarios
The “de-schooling” senarios
  • Two “de-schooling” futures involve the dismantling of much of school institutions and systems. In Scenario 5, this comes about through the widespread establishment of non-formal learning networks, facilitated both by ICTs and a “network society” environment. In Scenario 6, it comes about through an exodus of teachers that is unresponsive to concerted policy measures and leads to the more or less extensive “meltdown” of school systems.
unesco curriculum development analyses
UNESCO Curriculum Development Analyses
  • International Bureau of Education (IBE) conference on curriculum adaptation for the 21st Century (1998)
  • IBE Conference on capacity building of curriculum specialists for educational reform in Asia (2000)
  • HKIEd curriculum reform conferences
common themes in curriculum adaptation
Common Themes in Curriculum Adaptation
  • Focus on all-rounded personal development, e.g. intellectual, spiritual, moral, social, physical, aesthetics…
  • Focus on students’ adaptive ability to face rapid social changes, pluralstic society, technological changes, in order to enhance employment opportunities
  • Focus on students’ thiking abilities, critical abilities, and problem solving abilities
  • Focus on cross-disciplinary integration
  • Focus on the right values and attitudes
  • Focus on learning a foreign language
  • Focus on environmental education
common curriculum development models
Common curriculum development models
  • Integration and diversification of the curriculum
  • Lifelong and lifewide learning
  • Civic & moral values
  • Individual development, creative and critical thinking
  • Key Learning Areas (Australia, HK, Taiwan, Malaysia)
  • General education
a typical justification for education reform
A typical justification for education reform

To ensure that HK will not lose out in a knowledge-based, globalized economy, the HKSAR has made education and skill training the number of one priority of our social policy…. We have launched a massive education reform program which aims, among other things, to help our young people learn how to learn and to inculcate in them a commitment to lifelong learning.

HK, 2002

changing social realities
Changing Social Realities
  • Rapid changes, particularly economic restructuring
  • Fewer jobs, changing job nature
  • Intensive global competitions
  • Increased uncertainties
  • Schooling for tomorrow
  • Learning for tomorrow
  • Sustained competitiveness
the emergence of knowledge management in knowledge economy
The emergence of knowledge management in knowledge economy
  • Knowledge workers
  • Speed of knowledge change
  • OECD categories of knowledge:
    • Know-what
    • Know-why
    • Know-how
    • Know-who
  • Knowledge management strategies
oecd education ministerial meeting 2010
OECD Education Ministerial Meeting 2010
  • Main Issues
    • Education and training systems need to develop competent, connected and active lifelong learners who can respond effectively to unpredicted needs
    • Education not only produces human capital, but also contributes to wider social benefits: health, civic participation, political engagement, trust and tolerance.
terminology change conceptual change
Terminology Change – Conceptual Change

Lifelong Education

Lifelong Learning

Organised educational provision

Individualised pursuit of learning, motivating individuals to learn what would suit them for their own adaptation to the changing world,

Programmes, organisations and central strategies of provision

Facilitating the emergence of spontaneous community provision of learning opportunities to suit the learners’ needs.



Private initiatives: also criticising that the state tries to abdicate its responsibility to provide economic opportunities

State-led provision

internationalisaton of education intercultural learning
Internationalisaton of Education: Intercultural Learning
  • Jonas Stier: Internationalisation is about intercultural communication and intercultural competence.
    • Content competence: know that
    • Processual competence: know how, including intrapersonal and interpersonal competence
    • Six i-Characteristics:
      • intercultural (themes and perspectives),
      • interdisciplinary,
      • investigative (curiosity and passion for new cultural experiences and knowledge),
      • integrated (national and international students),
      • interactive (teacher-student; student-studennt) and
      • integrative (theory-practice)
attributes required for internationalisation
Attributes Required for Internationalisation

Ulla Lundgren:

  • adaptability, tolerance, empathy, flexibility, cultural awareness.

City University London Report 2009:

  • respect (for rights),
  • understanding (of cultural role), valuing (others’ opinions),
  • recognition of diversity, awareness (of local-global interactions),
  • critical enquiry,
  • reflections (on one’s own cultural limitations)

Nick Stone:

  • intercultural effectiveness: emotional intelligence, knowledge, motivation, openness, resilience, reflectiveness.
new learning new knowledge new pedagogies in internationalisation
New Learning, New Knowledge, New Pedagogies in Internationalisation

Janette Ryan and Susan Helllmundt:

  • flexible and negotiable learning objectives
  • outcomes and learning contracts for individual needs
  • allow students to use their own words and ways of expressing ideas
  • a process of transformation, and integrating intercultural dimension into teaching
  • a process of developing new understanding of knowledge
  • an innovative way to develop epistemology in creating intercultural knowledge, culturally constituted knowledge, and a holistic approach to learning, from decontextualisation to recontextualisation of knowledge (MonneWhilborg).

The re-bordering of formal, nonformal and informal education

  • The emergence of lifelong learning as the 4th sector of education: primary, secondary, tertiary, liflelong

Table 1 The relationship between formal and non-formal education

Source: Constructed based on Rogers, 2004, pp. 255-260.

reconceptualisation of the role of teachers and learners
Reconceptualisation of the Role of Teachers and Learners
  • Teaching for the future: from teaching the know (or known) to teaching for the unknown (or new knowledge)
  • Student participation in knowledge creation (or knowledge construction)
  • Teachers and students both engaged in a process of knowledge co-construction
  • Teachers learning in the teaching process
  • Students teaching in the learning process
the re bordering of education
The Re-bordering of Education
  • XIV World Congress of Comparative Education, 2010 Istanbul: Bordering, re-bordering and new possibilities in education andsociety.
  • Chinese Taipei Comparative Education Society Annual Meeting, 2010: Cross-Border Education:Theory andPractice.
sectorisation de sectorisation of education
Sectorisation & de-sectorisation of education
  • Robertson (2010, p. xvii) observes that “Over the past three decades, education systems around the world have been faced with a series of major structural transformations, with the borders and boundaries around the ‘state’, the ‘nation’, the ‘sector’, the ‘citizen-subject’, and ‘knowledge’ being substantially reworked.”

The re-bordering of formal, nonformal and informal education

  • The emergence of lifelong learning as the 4th sector of education: primary, secondary, tertiary, liflelong

Table 1 The relationship between formal and non-formal education

Source: Constructed based on Rogers, 2004, pp. 255-260.

lee and fleming the institutionalisation of lifelong learning
Lee and Fleming: The Institutionalisation of Lifelong Learning
  • Responsiveness to community needs form the fundamental foundation for this unique contribution.
  • It begins with just a simple response to the community needs for providing lifelong learning opportunities for learners outside or beyond the Academy
  • It then gradually formalises the knowledge that is originally non-formal or informal, in order to gain wider recognition by various stakeholders in the wider community.
  • The formalisation of the knowledge further functions as a bridge between the community and the Academy, as the newly produced/organised knowledge has the potential of being gradually immersed into, and accepted by, the parent university as a part of the Academy.

Duke (2001): Lifelong learning can become a matrix with formal and non-formal education.

  • Rogers (2004): The continuum of formal and non-formal education –lifelong learning and the traditional Academy should not be seen in dichotomous terms but as a continuum, depending upon the degree of participatory and contextualised learning (in the form of informal education) and decontextualisation (in the form of formal education).
  • The interaction of the two will eventually blur the differences between them.

Lifelong learning can be considered the “fourth sector”, adding to primary, secondary and tertiary education.

  • However, the more the contribution of the lifelong learning sector is recognised, the boundary between the Academy and the lifelong learning institutions will become blurred.
  • And this blurring effect may also lead to a converse blurring effect upon the sectorisation of education, i.e. de-sectorisation.
lessons from singapore
Lessons from Singapore
  • C2015 policy is to affect the total curriculum.
  • All teachers are being regarded as citizenship educators are therefore expected to teach National Education.
  • Teachers’ Pledge: “We, the teachers of Singapore, pledge that: … We will guide our pupils to be good and useful citizens of Singapore.”

Desired outcomes of education and citizenship attributes, embodied in the “Confident Person”, “Self-directed Learner”, “Active Contributor”, and “Concerned Citizen”.

globalisation knowledge economy and 21 st century skills
Globalisation, Knowledge Economy and 21st Century Skills
  • ‘21st century skills’ which broadly cover critical, creative and inventive thinking; information, interactive and communication skills; civic literacy, global awareness and cross-cultural skills.

Social capital, ‘soft skills’ broadly includes trust, teamwork, social cohesion, and social networks.

  • These ‘soft skills’, scholars have argued, are critical for economic advancement in the new global environment.