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Evidence of Evolution - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Evidence of Evolution. From, Darwin’s , 1839, “ Birds Part 3 No. 3 of The zoology of the voyage of H.M.S. Beagle.: illustration by John Gould. From Darwin’s “Transmutations of Species,” 1837. The first family tree. Charles Darwin. The Fossil Record. 1) Shows which organisms once existed.

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

Evidence of Evolution

From, Darwin’s , 1839, “Birds Part 3 No. 3 of The zoology of the voyage of H.M.S. Beagle.: illustration by John Gould

From Darwin’s “Transmutations of Species,” 1837. The first family tree

Charles Darwin

slide2

The Fossil Record

1) Shows which organisms once existed

  • 99.9% of all species that ever existed are now extinct

Trilobytes – 405 million years ago

The oldest fossil record of multicellular life, filaments of Bangiomorpha, a red algae, are 1.6 billion years old

slide3

Fission-track

Paleomagnetic

Potassium/Argon and Argon/Argon

Uranium Series

Dating method

Thermoluminescence

Amino Acid Racemization

Radiocarbon

0

1

2

3

4

5

Electron Spin Resonance

mya

2) Indicates when the organisms existed

  • radiometric dating is used to determine age of fossils
slide4

3) Shows a logical sequence of forms

        • invertebrates
        • fish
        • amphibians
        • reptiles
        • mammals and birds

Pterodactyl

then

Bird

slide5

4) Shows transitional forms between

species

Transitional Forms – fossils or organisms that show intermediate states between an ancestral form and that of its descendants

There are numerous examples of transitional forms in the fossil record

slide6

Pakicetus was a land mammal, Aetiocetus a transitional species, and the gray whale a modern species

slide8

There are 3 elephant species living today. The fossil record shows that

350 species used to exist

slide9

Eupodophis – lived 92 million years ago and had legs; it’s a transitional form between lizards and limbless snakes

slide10

Comparative Anatomy

Shows evolutionary relationships

between groups

  • homologous structures – similar structures because of
  • common descent
slide11

Whales and hummingbirds have tetrapod skeletons inherited from a common ancestor. Their bodies have been modified and parts have been lost through natural selection. On the surface, these animals look very different, but the relationship between them is easy to see

slide12

Frogs, birds, rabbits and lizards all have different forelimbs, reflecting their different lifestyles. But those different forelimbs all share the same set of bones - the humerus, the radius, and the ulna. These are the same bones seen in fossils of the extinct transitional animal, Eusthenopteron, which demonstrates their common ancestry

slide13

Comparative Embryology

  • closely related organisms go through
  • similar stages in their embryonic
  • development

Embryology – the study of embryo development

Ontogeny – the development of an organism from

egg to adult form

slide14

Similarities/differences in ontogeny

  • help establish evolutionary
  • relationships (phylogeny)
  • Phylogeny – the evolutionary history of a group
  • of organisms
slide15

Early embryos of many different vertebrate

  • species look remarkably similar
slide17

Molecular Biology

  • evolutionary relationships are reflected in the
  • DNA and proteins of organisms; closely
  • related organisms have similar DNA
  • sequences
slide18

Comparison of mammalian genomes, using either whole genomes or just

  • introns, Sung-Hou Kim lab/UC Berkeley
slide19

Mutations occur at a fairly predictable rate.

  • Therefore, the similarity/differences in base
  • sequences of DNA reveal the evolutionary
  • history of species

nucleotide substitutions among 17 mammal species from seven gene products versus time of divergence according to fossil

records

slide20

Mutation rates

  • bacteria 10-8 /bp/generation
  • DNA Viruses 10-6 to 10-8/bp/generation
  • eukaryotes 10-4 to 10-6/bp/generation
  • humans 4.8 x 10-9 /bp/generation

* bp = base pairs

slide21

changes in the base sequences of SARS virus

  • show relationships between various strains of the
  • virus, and shows that the virus “jumped” from bats
  • to civets (a cat) and humans
slide22

Evolutionary tree of HIV-1 shows

how the virus hopped from

chimpanzee hosts to humans.

HIV-1 is most closely related

to the SIV virus that infect

chimps

slide23

There are about 100 breeds of domestic cats. All originated from the African Wildcat, Felis sylvestris. Modern cats appear to have originated in Asia 10 million years ago.

slide24

Biogeography

  • the geographic distribution of species
  • suggests evolutionary relationships

Biogeography – the study of the geographic

distribution of species

slide26

The marsupials of Australia are thought to have migrated from South America and across Antarctica to Australia (arrow) by way of land bridges, some 70 million years ago