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Characteristics of Living Things. Living things are made of cells. Living things reproduce Living things are based on genetic code Living things grow and develop Living things obtain and use energy Living things respond to the environment Living things maintain a stable internal environment

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characteristics of living things
Characteristics of Living Things
  • Living things are made of cells.
  • Living things reproduce
  • Living things are based on genetic code
  • Living things grow and develop
  • Living things obtain and use energy
  • Living things respond to the environment
  • Living things maintain a stable internal environment
  • Living things change over time
today s modern kingdoms
Prokaryotes- simple cells

Eubacteria- “normal” bacteria found everywhere

Archaebacteria- unusual bacteria found in hot springs, brine pools and mud

Eukaryotes- complex cells with nucleii

Fungus- mold, mushrooms, etc. decomposers

Protists- microscopic “left over” group

Plants- make food

Animals- consumers of food

Today’s Modern Kingdoms

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bacteria how is the world we live in impacted by things that you can t see

BacteriaHow is the world we live in impacted by things that you can’t see?

Health & Social Education

bacteria
Bacteria
  • Bacteria are living things that are neither plants nor animals.
    • Two Kingdoms: Eubacteria & Archaebacteria
    • Prokaryotes – all bacteria. have no nucleus or complex organelles
e coli
E. coli

E. coli

typical eubacterial cell
Typical Eubacterial Cell
  • Bacteria (prokaryotes) are simpler than eukaryotes
  • Cell wall:
    • Protects from injury
    • Determines shape
    • Made of peptidoglycan (carbohydrate molecules linked by proteins)
shapes of bacteria
Shapes of Bacteria
  • Spiral-shapedSpirilla
  • Sphere-shapedCocci
  • Rod-shapedBacilli
where
Where???
  • Eubacteria live almost everywhere:
    • Fresh water
    • Salt water
    • Land
    • On & within your body!
archaebacteria
Archaebacteria
  • Chemically different from eubacteria
    • Lack peptidoglycan cell walls
  • DNA sequences differ from eubacteria
  • “Extremophiles”
    • Can live in extremely harsh environments
    • Acidic pH, temperature, saline, anaerobic(no oxygen)
archaebacteria vs eubacteria
Live in extreme environments

Chemically different

Cell wall lacks peptidoglycan (carbohydrate)

Live in non-extreme environments

Chemically different

Cell wall contains peptidoglycan (carbohydrate)

Archaebacteria vs. Eubacteria
bacteria reproduction

Bacteria Reproduction

Binary Fission:

1.Doubles in size

2.Doubles DNA

3.Splits into two

Conjugation:

1.Bridge forms between two cells

2.Genes move from one cell to another

Spore Formation:

1.Thick wall within bacteria forms to protect its DNA

2.Cell is now a spore, and goes into hibernation until more favorable conditions return

growth rates
Growth Rates
  • Given good growing conditions, a bacteria can grow and divide at astonishing rates.
  • If the environment is optimal, bacteria cells can divide as often as every twenty minutes.
disease caused by bacteria
Disease Caused by Bacteria
  • Pathogens-disease causing agents
  • Two ways bacteria cause disease
    • 1. Digesting cells
    • 2. Produce toxins
preventing bacterial disease
Preventing Bacterial Disease
  • Antibiotics: block the growth and reproduction of bacteria(not viruses)
  • Vaccines: weakened pathogens injected into body to produce resistance
methods used to control bacterial growth

Methods used to control bacterial growth…

Sterilization by heat-great heat

Disinfectants-chemical solutions that kill pathogenic bacteria

Food storage and processing-refrigeration, canning, preservatives

Dehydrate food

importance of bacteria
Importance of Bacteria
  • Decomposers
    • Recycle nutrients from dead organisms back into the ecosystem
    • Ex: A tree dies; bacteria attack and digest dead tissue, break it down into simpler material and return it to the soil.
human uses of bacteria
Production of foods and beverages

Oil spill clean up

Removal of waste and poison from water

Mining of minerals

making essential vitamins in body

Production of medicines and chemicals

Human Uses of Bacteria
where is good bacteria found
Where is good bacteria found?
  • Digestive tract
  • Skin
  • Mouth
  • Urinary tract
  • Genital areas