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Physics B. Welcome to. Dr. Bertrand pbertrand@ortn.edu 425-9500 x 2568 http://moodle521.occ.utk.edu. 3-Ring Binder (with sections). Notes Homework Quizzes and Tests Lunch Bunch Notes (Physics B only) Lunch Bunch Homework (Physics B only) Lunch Bunch Quizzes and Tests (Physics B only).

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slide2
Dr. Bertrand

pbertrand@ortn.edu

425-9500 x 2568

http://moodle521.occ.utk.edu

3 ring binder with sections
3-Ring Binder (with sections)
  • Notes
  • Homework
  • Quizzes and Tests
  • Lunch Bunch Notes (Physics B only)
  • Lunch Bunch Homework (Physics B only)
  • Lunch Bunch Quizzes and Tests (Physics B only)
kinematics
Kinematics

The branch of mechanics that studies the motion of a body without caring about what caused the motion.

particle
Particle
  • Has position and mass.
  • Has NO size or volume.
  • Located at one point in space.
position
Position
  • Location of a particle in space.
  • One dimension (x)
  • Two dimensions (x,y)
  • Three dimensions (x,y,z)
slide7

1-Dimensional Coordinates

x = 1 m

-1

0

1

2

3

X (m)

distance
Distance
  • The total length of the path traveled by an object.
  • Does not depend upon direction.
  • “How far have you walked?”
slide9

xf = -1 m

1-Dimensional Coordinates

Distance moved by particle is 2 meters.

xi = 1 m

-1

0

1

2

3

X (m)

displacement
Displacement
  • The change in position of an object.
  • Depends only on the initial and final positions, not on path.
  • Includes direction.
  • “How far are you from home?”
displacement1
Displacement
  • Represented by x.
  • x = x2 - x1

where

x2 = final position

x1= initial position

slide12

xf = -1 m

1-Dimensional Coordinates

Distance moved by particle is 2 meters.

Displacement of particle is -2 meters.

xi = 1 m

-1

0

1

2

3

X (m)

distance vs displacement
Distance vs Displacement

B

100 m

displacement

50 m

distance

A

today
Average Velocity LaboratoryToday

Do lab in assigned groups.

Record results in table at front of room.

Finish lab write-up at home if necessary.

average speed
Average Speed

save = d

t

Where:

save = rate (speed)

d = distance

t = elapsed time

average velocity
Average Velocity

vave = ∆x

∆t

Where:

vave = average velocity

∆x = displacement (x2-x1)

∆t = change in time(t2-t1)

velocity vs speed
Velocity vs Speed
  • Average speed is always positive.
  • Average velocity can be positive or negative depending direction.
  • Absolute value of velocity can be used for speed if the object is not changing direction.
average velocity1

B

x

Dx

A

Dt

t

Average Velocity

Vave = Dx/Dt, or the slope of the line connecting A and B.

average velocity2

A

x

B

Dx

Dt

t

Average Velocity

Vave = Dx/Dt; still determined by the slope of the line connecting A and B.

instantaneous velocity

x

t

Instantaneous Velocity

B

Determined by the slope of the tangent to a curve at a single point.

acceleration
Acceleration
  • A change in velocity is called acceleration.
  • Acceleration can be
  • speeding up
  • slowing down
  • turning
uniformly accelerated motion
Uniformly Accelerated Motion
  • In Physics B, we will generally assume that acceleration is constant.
  • With this assumption we are free to use this equation:

a = ∆v

∆t

units of acceleration
Units of Acceleration

The SI unit for acceleration is m/s2.

sign of acceleration
Sign of Acceleration

Acceleration can be positive or negative.

The sign indicates direction.

general rule
General Rule

If the sign of the velocity and the sign of the acceleration is the same, the object speeds up.

If the sign of the velocity and the sign of the acceleration are different, the object slows down.

accelerating objects
Accelerating objects…

Note: each of these curves has many different slopes (many different velocities)!

x

t

another accelerating object
Another accelerating object.

x

Another tangent. Another instantaneous velocity!

t

The tangent touches the curve at one point. Its slope gives the instantaneous velocity at that point.

summary constant position graphs

x

v

a

t

t

t

Acceleration

vs

time

Position

vs

time

Velocity

vs

time

Summary:Constant position graphs
summary constant velocity graphs

x

v

a

t

t

t

Acceleration

vs

time

Position

vs

time

Velocity

vs

time

Summary:Constant velocity graphs
summary constant acceleration graphs

x

v

a

t

t

t

Acceleration

vs

time

Position

vs

time

Velocity

vs

time

Summary:Constant acceleration graphs
summary
Summary

v = vo + at

x = xo + vot + 1/2 at2

v2 = vo2 + 2a(∆x)

free fall
Free Fall
  • Occurs when an object falls unimpeded.
  • Gravity accelerates the object toward the earth.
acceleration due to gravity
Acceleration due to gravity
  • g = 9.8 m/s2 downward.
  • a = -g if up is positive.
  • acceleration is down when ball is thrown up EVERYWHERE in the balls flight.
summary1
Summary

v = vo - gt

x = xo + vot - 1/2 gt2

v2 = vo2 – 2g(∆x)

symmetry
Symmetry
  • When something is thrown upward and returns to the thrower, this is very symmetric.
  • The object spends half its time traveling up; half traveling down.
  • Velocity when it returns to the ground is the opposite of the velocity it was thrown upward with.
  • Acceleration is –9.8 m/s2 everywhere!
determination of your reaction time
Determination of Your Reaction Time!

Get in lab groups.

Drop meter stick between forefinger and thumb of another person.

See where the person grabs the stick.

Calculate reaction time!