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How to use this PowerPoint presentation - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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How to use this PowerPoint presentation. To watch the PowerPoint, click on the “Slide Show” menu and then “View Show” or just hit “F5”. If you don’t want to hear the narration, mute or turn off your computer speakers

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  1. How to use this PowerPoint presentation • To watch the PowerPoint, click on the “Slide Show” menu and then “View Show” or just hit “F5”. • If you don’t want to hear the narration, mute or turn off your computer speakers • To skip ahead while watching the show, hit the space or arrow button. You can also see all the slides and select the one you want by clicking on the “View” menu and selecting “Slide Sorter.” • To print out the presentation, click on the “File” menu, “Print.” Then under “Print What”, select “Handouts” and Print 3, 4 or 6 slides per page to save paper and printer ink. Otherwise each slide will print on its own page • Remember that this PowerPoint is an overview of the topic. Use the book chapters and online web links from the course website to fill in details. Some students like to follow along in the book, or stop and view related websites. • ENJOY!!! (E-mail me with any questions)

  2. Reproduction • Human Life Cycle • Meiosis again—eggs and sperm • Fetal Development and Birth

  3. Reproduction • Human Life Cycle • Meiosis again—eggs and sperm • Fetal Development and Birth

  4. Events of human life cycle • Meiosis • Fertilization • Fetal Development • Birth • Childhood/Adolescence • Adulthood (Meiosis) • Aging • Death

  5. Reproduction • Human Life Cycle • Meiosis again—eggs and sperm • Fetal Development and Birth

  6. Male reproductive organs • Sperm produced in testes (left, right) • Carried by vas deferens (left, right) up into abdominal cavity (millions of sperm in a few drops of testicular fluid) • Join with urethra at base of penis • Semen made by prostrate and seminal glands at base of penis • Ejaculation—sperm travel from testes, joined by semen, expelled through erect penis

  7. So where does meiosis happen? • Tissue of testes is full of seminiferous tubules • In walls of tubules, stem cells that give rise to sperm are constantly undergoing meiosis • Sperm are then collected in epididymis • Sperm that are not ejaculated are reabsorbed back into testicular tissue

  8. Vasectomy • Vas deferens is cut • Semen production and ejaculation are as before • Sperm cannot travel through epididymis (in drops of testicular fluid) to join semen • As before, unejaculated sperm are reabsorbed into testicular fluid

  9. Female reproductive organs • Clitoris, homologous with penis suspended from pubic bone • Bladder with short direct urethral exit just behind pubis • Vaginal opening behind urethra. Vagina is muscular tube • Labia majorum surround clitoris, urethra, vaginal opening • Cervix (neck—”cervical”) of uterus inserts into end of vagina • Oviducts (left, right) bring eggs from ovaries to uterus • Ovaries are site of initial meiosis, where unfertilized eggs are produced

  10. So where does meiosis happen? • Meiosis occurs in ovaries • Phase I occurs in fetal ovary • one egg per month (ovulation part of menstrual cycle) matures and bursts from wall of ovary to be taken up into Fallopian tube • Phase II of meiosis occurs the moment the egg is fertilized (if that happens)

  11. Female menstrual cycle (no pregnancy)

  12. If pregnancy occurs (no menstruation)

  13. Birth control options

  14. Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs): • Viral diseases: cannot be treated with antibiotics but there are a few antivirals • HIV • Genital warts • Genital Herpes • Hepatitis • Bacterial diseases: can be treated with antibiotics • Chlamydia • Gonorrhea • Syphillis

  15. STD’s: Hepatitis • An infection of the liver by one of 6 viruses (Hep A,B,C,D,E,G • Hep B: most commonly sexually transmitted hepatitis • Transmitted through sexual contact and by contaminated blood • Hepatitis B can lead to liver failure • Vaccine available for both Hep A and B

  16. Other common infections of the reproductive tract • Bacterial vaginosis (BV): • Accounts for ~ 50% of vaginitis in American women • Caused by a disruption of the normal flora in the vagina leading to an overgrowth of certain bacteria • Trichomoniasis • Caused by a protozoan • Can cause a frothy discharge, with a foul smell and itching • Common cause of vaginitis • Candidiasis • An overgrowth of normal yeast (fungus called Candida) in the vagina • Characterized by tissue that is red, inflammed and itchy; sometimes a white, curdy discharge as well • Birth control hormones and use of antibiotics make women more prone to this overgrowth

  17. Health focus: Preventing transmission of STDs? • Abstinence • Develop long-term monogamous relationships • Be aware if your partner is an intravenous drug user because prevalence of STDs are higher in that group • Practice safer sex • Always use a latex condom during intercourse • Limit or do not use alcohol and drugs that can impair your judgment or change your behavior

  18. Reproduction • Human Life Cycle • Meiosis again—eggs and sperm • Fetal Development and Birth

  19. Fertilization and Implantation • Approximately one week to implantation • No growth, just mitosis producing smaller cells • Ectopic pregnancy—fertilized egg implants but not in uterine wall

  20. Early embryonic development • Basic body plan laid down • No organs formed • Placenta develops • Very little growth, fetus still tiny

  21. From fetus to adult • Fetal “germ layers” destined to become specific adult structures • Overall adult body reflects early fetal form • Guts inside • Brain/spinal cord dorsal midline • Muscles, bones in flesh of outer part of body

  22. Pregnancy--changes in female anatomy • Shift in organs • Bladder, rectum pushed superiorly, squeezed--change in urination, defecation patterns • Stomach compressed--eat more often, less at each meal • Immune response may change appetite to avoid possible poisons for fetus • Postural changes to compensate for anterior weight • Breasts enlarge--first milk production • Add from a and p pregnancy lecture

  23. Birth

  24. Birthing, cultures, children • Many different approaches to birthing process • Many different approaches and attitudes to child-raising • Result is human populations and their evolution (next topic)

  25. Reproduction—review • Human Life Cycle • Meiosis again—eggs and sperm • Fetal Development and Birth

  26. Events of human life cycle • Meiosis • Fertilization • Fetal Development • Birth • Childhood/Adolescence • Adulthood (Meiosis) • Aging • Death

  27. So where does meiosis happen? • Tissue of testes is full of seminiferous tubules • In walls of tubules, stem cells that give rise to sperm are constantly undergoing meiosis • Sperm are then collected in epididymis • Sperm that are not ejaculated are reabsorbed back into testicular tissue

  28. So where does meiosis happen? • Meiosis occurs in ovaries • Phase I occurs in fetal ovary • one egg per month (ovulation part of menstrual cycle) matures and bursts from wall of ovary to be taken up into Fallopian tube • Phase II of meiosis occurs the moment the egg is fertilized (if that happens)

  29. Fertilization and Implantation • Ectopic pregnancy—fertilized egg implants but not in uterine wall • Approximately one week to implantation • No growth, just mitosis producing smaller cells

  30. From fetus to adult • Fetal “germ layers” destined to become specific adult structures • Overall adult body reflects early fetal form • Guts inside • Brain/spinal cord dorsal midline • Muscles, bones in flesh of outer part of body

  31. Birth