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GE177b- Objectives. Introduce a variety of techniques to describe ‘quantitatively’ deformation of the lithosphere and fault slip history. Introduce the basic mechanisms governing lithospheric deformation and conceptual models of the ‘seismic cycle’.

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ge177b objectives
GE177b- Objectives
  • Introduce a variety of techniques to describe ‘quantitatively’ deformation of the lithosphere and fault slip history.
  • Introduce the basic mechanisms governing lithospheric deformation and conceptual models of the ‘seismic cycle’.
  • Expose the students to a number of modeling tools commonly used in tectonics studies.

I will try to lead you to think not only in terms of kinematics but also in terms of stress and rheology.

ge177b objectives1
GE177b- Objectives

At the end of the class you should be able

  • to carry on a active tectonic studies on your own using satellite images, DEM and able to plan a field survey. (Observe, Measure)
  • to analyze the results based of general concepts in tectonics and simple modeling tools (Interpret, Model)
  • to read and assess the current literature in active tectonics (Critical Reading)
i introduction to active tectonics
I. Introduction to Active Tectonics
  • Objectives:
    • Introduce some outstanding issues in continental tectonic and seismotectonics.
    • Give an overview of the tools and concepts that will be addressed over the course of the class.
slide9

Where are the active faults?

Velocities relative to Eurasia,

Bettinelli et al (2006), Calais et al (2006), Simons et al (2007), Gan et al (2007), Chlieh et al (2010)

satellite mosaic and topography of central asia
Satellite Mosaic and topography of Central Asia

The response is in the landscape

some outstanding issues in active tectonics
Some outstanding issues in Active Tectonics
  • Is continental deformation distributed or localized? (Is it appropriate to model continental lithosphere as a viscously deforming medium or an elasto-plastic medium? )
  • What is the influence of surface processes on tectonics?
slide13

Coupling between Tectonics, Erosion and Climate

Isostatic response to valley deepening might lead to peak uplift (England and Molnar, 1990)…

some outstanding issues in active tectonics1
Some outstanding issues in Active Tectonics
  • Is continental deformation distributed or localized? (Is it appropriate to model continental lithosphere as a viscously deforming medium or an elasto-plastic medium? )
  • What is the influence of surface processes on tectonics?
  • Is continental deformation a ‘side effect’ of plate tectonics or does it play an important role in global dynamics?
some outstanding issues in active tectonics2
Some outstanding issues in Active Tectonics
  • Is continental deformation distributed or localized? (Is it appropriate to model continental lithosphere as a viscously deforming medium or an elasto-plastic medium? )
  • What is the influence of surface processes on tectonics?
  • Is continental deformation a ‘side effect’ of plate tectonics or does it play an important role in global dynamics?
  • What factors determine the relative proportion of seismic and aseismic deformation? (What determines whether a fault patch creeps steadily or produce seismic slip?)
  • How regular/irregular is the ‘seismic cycle’ on a fault?
the seismic cycle jargon
The ‘Seismic Cycle’ jargon
  • Motion on faults is generally ‘stick-slip’. Some fault creeps aseismically but most produce recurring large earthquakes.
  • Conventionnally we distinguish
    • Co-seismic deformation
    • Interseismic deformation
    • Post-seismic deformation
    • Secular deformation (long term averaged)
slide19

Secular deformation might result from slip on the thrust fault and distributed deformation within the orogenic wedge

some outstanding issues in active tectonics3
Some outstanding issues in Active Tectonics
  • Is continental deformation distributed or localized? (Is it appropriate to model continental lithosphere as a viscously deforming medium or an elasto-plastic medium? )
  • What is the influence of surface processes on tectonics?
  • Is continental deformation a ‘side effect’ of plate tectonics or does it play an important role in global dynamics?
  • What factors determine the relative proportion of seismic and aseismic deformation? (What determines whether a fault patch creeps steadily or produce seismic slip?)
  • How regular/irregular is the ‘seismic cycle’ on a fault?
  • Are some aspects of the ‘seismic cycle’ predictable? (rupture extent, magnitude, time, slip, …)
  • How do faults interact? Does it lead to some systematic pattern?
  • What is the rheology governing fault bevavior?
  • ….
what information observations do we need to make progress on these issues
What information/observations do we need to make progress on these issues?
  • Good kinematic description of crustal deformation and fault behavior :
    • active faults
    • long-term slip rates,
    • Information about mode of slip (paleoseismo, paleogeodesy)
    • coseismic slip models
    • interseismic strain and interseismic coupling models…
  • Constraints on stresses…
ge177b outline
GE177b-Outline

I. Introduction to Active Tectonics

II. Methods in Morphotectonics

III. Determining the time evolution of fault slip

IV. The ‘seismic cycle’

Appendices:

- A: Geochronologic methods in Active Tectonics

- B: Geodetic and Remote Sensing techniques

- C: Elastic Dislocation Modeling