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The Structure of DNA

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  1. The Structure of DNA

  2. Importance of DNA? (read only) • Carries all the genes for your physical traits • In the nucleus of ALL your cells • Codes for everything in your body

  3. Watson and Crick • Discovered DNA structure 1953 • Called DOUBLE HELIX –resembles spiral staircase.

  4. DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) The nucleotides of DNA are made up of 1. 2. and

  5. DNA (continued) Nitrogen Bases • Purines= • Adenine and GuaninePyrimidines= • Thymine and Cytosine • Base Pairing Rules • Adenine only bonds with Thymine • (A=T) • Guanine only bonds with Cytosine • (G=C)

  6. b A C D

  7. Which is the ONLY correct base pair??? T C G C A A A G A C T B G G C

  8. A C B D Which is the real Nucleotide???

  9. Nucleic Acid Monomer (Draw & Label) Phosphate Group 5-carbon sugar Nitrogen base

  10. A B C D

  11. -Nitrogen bases are connected by a __hydrogen___ bond. -Phosphates and sugars are connected by __covalent______bonds. Covalent Bond

  12. b A C D

  13. A B C D

  14. DNA (read only) DNA is made of 2 long chains of nucleotides joined by hydrogen bonds The end with the phosphate exposed is the 5’ end. The other end with sugar exposed the 3’ end. DNA Structure

  15. The Double Helix

  16. DNA chromatin This …. ….not this is what’s found in the cell. DNA is almost always wrapped around proteins called histones. The histones are the proteins that we cut with the enzyme in our DNA extraction lab.

  17. Activity Draw a DNA with 5 base pairs with the 5’ end on the top left hand corner and the nitrogen sequence A-C-G-T-C on the left side, the complimentary base should be on the right.

  18. Review Quiz 1. Nucleic acids are macromolecules that are made up of _______. 2. Nucleotides are made up of _______, ______, and ______. 3. There are two types of nucleic acids, _____ and _____. 4. The sugar in DNA is called _______. 5. The structure of DNA is called _____. 6. The structure of DNA was discovered by ______ and ____ in the year ______. 7. Adenine and Guanine are _________. 8. Cytosine and Thymine are _________. 9. Cytosine only bonds with _________. 10. Thymine only bonds with _________. 11. _________ are the proteins that DNA is wrapped around in the nucleus. 12. Nitrogen bases are held together by ______ bonds. 13. Phosphates and sugars are held together by _______ bonds.

  19. Review Quiz Answers Nucleic acids are macromolecules that are made up of nucleotides. Nucleic acids are made up of aphosphate group, a five carbon sugar, and a nitrogen base. There are two types of nucleic acids, DNA and RNA. The sugar in DNA is called deoxyribose. The structure of DNA is called double helix. The structure of DNA was discovered by Watson and Crick in the year 1953. Adenine and Guanine are purines. Cytosine and Thymine are pyrimidines. Cytosine only bonds with Guanine. Thymine only bonds with Adenine. Histones are the proteins that DNA is wrapped around in the nucleus. Nitrogen bases are held together by hydrogen bonds. Phosphates and sugars are held together by covalent bonds.

  20. Review Quiz-wednesday Nucleic acids are macromolecules that are made up of _______. Nucleotides are made up of _______, ______, and ______. There are two types of nucleic acids, _____ and _____. The sugar in DNA is called _______. There are three types of RNA, _____, _____ and _____. The structure of DNA is called _____. The structure of DNA was discovered by ______ and ____ in the year ______. Each _______________ codes for one amino acid. Adenine and Guanine are _________. Cytosine and Thymine are _________. Cytosine only bonds with _________. Thymine only bonds with _________. The end of the DNA with the phosphate group exposed is called _______. _________ are the proteins that DNA is wrapped around in the nucleus. Nitrogen bases are held together by ______ bonds. Phosphates and sugars are held together by _______ bonds.

  21. Review Quiz-Wednesday Answers Nucleic acids are macromolecules that are made up of nucleotides. Nucleic acids are made up of aphosphate group, a five carbon sugar, and a nitrogen base. There are two types of nucleic acids, DNA and RNA. The sugar in DNA is called deoxyribose. There are three types of RNA, mRNA, tRNA and rRNA. The structure of DNA is called double helix. The structure of DNA was discovered by Watson and Crick in the year 1953. Each DNA triplet codes for one amino acid. Adenine and Guanine are purines. Cytosine and Thymine are pyrimidines. Cytosine only bonds with Guanine. Thymine only bonds with Adenine. The end of the DNA with the phosphate group exposed is called 5’ prime. Histones are the proteins that DNA is wrapped around in the nucleus. Nitrogen bases are held together by hydrogen bonds. Phosphates and sugars are held together by covalent bonds.

  22. Building a DNA Model Using the materials provided the people at your table will build a 12 base pair model of DNA. The Mike and Ikes are the nitrogen bases (red compliments with green, yellow compliments with orange), the marshmallows (or gumballs) are the phosphate groups, and the liquorice is the sugar. Remember the sugars and phosphates MUST ALTERNATE down each side. to show the 5’ ends and the 3’ ends so we can string them all together.

  23. TOOTSIE ROLL TOOTHPICKS Mike & Ike Red = A Green = T Orange = G Yellow = C MARSHMALLOW

  24. DNA Complementary base pairing allows each strand of DNA to serve as a template for DNA replication Replication always proceeds from the 5’ to the 3’ DNA is an illustration of function following form (structure dictates function).

  25. Chromosome • Structure made of chromatin/DNA wrapped tightly around proteins called histones.

  26. Gene • Section of DNA that controls making of proteins

  27. Macromolecule->DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)-Double Helix • Sugar (Deoxyribose) • Phosphate group • Nitrogenous bases

  28. Nucleotides • Makes up DNA (monomer) • Has 3 parts: • 5-carbon sugar(deoxyribose) • Phosphate group • Nitrogen base (there are 4)

  29. There are four kinds of bases in in DNA: adenine guanine cytosine thymine

  30. Base Pairing Rule 4 bases that make up DNA • Steps on the ladder • Adenine pairs with Thymine • Cytosine pairs with Guanine • A=T • C=G

  31. P P D CG D P P D D AT P P

  32. Backbone of DNA is made of phosphates and sugar (deoxyribose) making a chain • Nitrogenous bases stick out sideways from the chain P P D CG D P P D D AT P P

  33. The bases are connected to each other by HYDROGEN bonds

  34. A B C D

  35. A B C D