Zigbee Nations Team IPA Kirill Belyayev Amjad Chaudhry Arush Dhawan Aditya Kaundinya Bilal Yousufi
In-Car Automation and Monitoring System • Sensors are placed throughout a car and wirelessly send data back to a central terminal • Data displayed on LCD • Zigbee is used to transmit and receive Data • Audio and Visual Warnings will be given if a sensor detects something has fallen below the threshold.
What is Zigbee? • Zigbee is a short-range wireless connectivity option ideal for low- power and low data rate applications based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard • Zigbee devices may run for several years with an original battery because of its low power consumption. • It works well in noisy environments, mesh networking • Zigbee operates at 2.4 GHz
Implementation • We will use Zigbee technology to measure different components of a car and display the data on a main LCD screen. • Tire Pressure • Temperature • Battery Voltage • Proximity Sensor • Fluid Sensor • If any of the sensors detect a critical level our system will be used to provide audio/visual warnings to the driver.
Implementation The basic steps in order to accomplish this goal are to: • Implement Zigbee Wireless Configuration. We send one digital value from one chip to other chip. • Send Multiples Values and store them in some database. • A/D Converter – Convert Some Analog Signal to Digital • Display the data on an LCD screen • Our primary goal would be to make this system modular. • For example, we could add any type of sensor, and it would integrate into the system
Goals • Minimum • Zigbee Based Tire Pressure Monitor that transmits data to a central terminal where it can be displayed on a LCD • Optimal • Multiple Sensors that transmit through Zigbee Wirelessly to a central terminal, where that data can be stored, manipulated, and displayed on a LCD
Safety Increase Reliability Motivation Save Fuel. Increase Efficiency • A 15 psi loss from the optimal tire pressure will increase fuel consumption between 10% to 15% • Proper tire inflation will increase tire life by over 25% • Proper tire inflation will also increase the tire’s responsiveness, traction, and handling. • Other sensors will monitor the different components of the car.
Parking Sensors Fluids level Sensors Tire Pressure Sensors Battery voltage sensors Temperature sensors Main Terminal Keypad Speaker LCDScreen System Architecture
Physical Issues • The Final Build will need to be hardened against the elements such as • Shock (i.e. Bumpy Roads) • Extreme Weather (Operating Temperature between -20 °C to 50 °C • Sensors should have small temperature coefficients or will need compensated based on environmental factors • Waterproofed
Power Architecture for Primary Terminal LCD Screen 5V Car Battery Buck Converter Main Terminal 3.3V Voltage Sensor Auto-Off
Issues with using a Car Battery • Battery Drain • Auto-Off Switch if Battery Voltage drops too low • Mechanical Hard Switch when not in use • Power Surges on Car Start-Up • Possible Solutions • Capacitors in parallel with Battery • UPS Connected to Battery
Development Phase Overview • We will use AC/DC Power Supplies to power up our system
Actual Build Overview • The Car Battery will be the main source of power. • A DC-DC Converter will be used to step-down to the appropriate voltages • A Voltage Regulator will be used to ensure the the microchips are safe from variations in the battery voltage, temperature, and other environmental factors
Zigbee, Sensors, and Microcontrollers • Burst Transmissions • Development Phase • Power Adapters • Final Build • Main Board will be Connected to Car Battery • Sensors, and attached Zigbee will be powered by battery
Zigbee, Sensors, and Microcontrollers • Sensor and Zigbee Power Supply Issues • The Wireless Sensors that are placed throughout the car will need an independent power source • Sensors’ Maximum Power Dissipation 20mA • Zigbee Transmitters Run at 3.3V. The sensors we will using will run at voltage between 3V to 6V • Solution: Buck-Boost Converter
Main Terminal RTC (optional) MC13192 2.4 GHz RF Data Modem EEPROM (optional) MC9S08GT60 Freescale 8 bit PLD RS 232 DB9 Serial Port F-51851 LCD Screen Speaker or buzzer (+ D/A if required) Keypad
LCD • OPTREX F-51851 • Graphic Monochrome LCD • 240 x 64 dots • 8 bit parallel
Development Board 13192DSK-A0E • Two 2.4 GHz wireless nodes compatible with the IEEE 802.15.4 standard • MC13192 2.4 GHz RF data modem • MC9S08GT60 low-voltage, low-power 8-bit MCU for baseband operations • Integrated sensors • MMA6261Q 1.5g X-Y-axis accelerometer + MMA1260D 1.5g Z-axis accelerometer • Printed transmit-and-receive antennae • Onboard expansion capabilities for external application- specific development activities • Onboard BDM port for MCU Flash reprogramming and in- circuit hardware debugging • RS-232 port for monitoring and Flash programming • LEDs and switches for demonstration, monitoring and control • Connections for nine-volt battery or external power supply • * Hardware supports Freescale's IEEE 802.15.4 MAC and example SMAC software • * Preprogrammed accelerometer demonstration and additional downloadable sample applications • * Metrowerks' CodeWarrior Development Studio for HCS08 special edition * Includes USB HCS08 BDM Multilink Programmer (13192DSK-BDM only) NOTE: Requires a HCS08 BDM Multilink Programmer for debug and program capability
Software Overview • We will use CodeWarrior (developed by Freescale Semicondoctor) as our programming environment. • The Microcontroller utilizes MAC(Media-Access-Control) functions to instruct the Zigbee transceiver. • We will be writing our code in the C language with the use MAC functions. • Code will be written for the data transmission/collection and the user interface.
Sensors RF Transmitter Micro Controller Built Into Sensor Chip A/D Sensor
Tire Pressure Monitoring • Used to warn driver of below-optimal tire pressure. • GE – NPX-1 sensor • Battery Supply Voltage – typically 3 V • Digital output • 450-1400 kPa pressure range
Distance Sensor • Used to warn driver of objects when backing out of driveway, etc. • IR Proximity Sensor - Sharp GP2Y0A21YK • 4.5 V to 5.5 V operating voltage • 30 mA average current consumption • 10 cm to 80 cm range (4" to 32")
Temperature Sensor • Can be used to automatically adjust temperature within the car. • Sensirion - SHT10 sensor • Temp. accuracy: +/- 0.5°C @ 25 °C • Calibrated & digital output (2-wire interface) • Low power consumption (typ. 30 µW)
Voltage and Current Sensor for Battery • A voltage sensor for detecting a terminal voltage of a battery connected to a load. • A current sensor for detecting a current flowing from the battery to the load. • Means for collecting the voltage value detected by the voltage sensor and the current value detected by the current sensor every predetermined time. • The voltage and current values are then transmitted to the main terminal which is then displayed on the LCD screen. • Audible and/or visual warning when Voltage becomes low (falls below 12V)
Risks and Fallback Options • Digital Wireless Technology is unfamiliar technology for us. We are lacking experience with Zigbee, and we might run out of time. • It will take at least a month to familiarize ourselves with the technology. For this reason, our project is scalable, and we can add or subtract sensors depending on how much time we have. • Sensors implementation ( Specifically - Sensor to Zigbee Communication) will take significant time to fully understand.
Extensions • Implement OBD (On-Board Diagnostics) with Zigbee • Nearly all cars made after 1998 have a built in OBD system that uses sensors all around the car, usually only available to mechanics. • Not a Standardized System • Proprietary Software used to download data from sensors.