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SIMS 247: Information Visualization and PresentationMarti Hearst Oct 10, 2005
Today • Another animation example • Fluid documents • The third dimension • The information visualizer and follow-ons • Navigating in 3D space • The debate: does 3D help? • Cognitive abilities and 3D • 3D vs 2D • Alternative: • 2.5D sequences (Automatic generation of assembly instructions)
Fluid Documents • Zellweger, Chang, Mackinlay. Fluid links for informed and incremental hypertext browsing. CHI'99 Extended Abstracts • Better document-reading interface • Combines • Lightweight animation • Focus + context
3D + Animation • Pioneered by Card and Robertson • Had state-of-the-art graphics hardware; wanted to see what happens when pushing the boundaries • Motivated by Card & Moran’s theories of cognitive architecture • Information Visualizer (PARC) • WebBook/Webforager (PARC, 1996) • Data Mountain (MS Research, 1998) • Task Gallery (MS Research, 2000)
Information Workspaces • Objective: • Decrease the costs for performing information-intensive tasks, or, alternatively, increase the scope of information that can be utilized for the same cost. • Method: • Large Workspaces • Make the immediate workspace virtually larger • Real-Time Interaction • Maximize the interaction rates • Visual Abstractions • Speed assimilation and pattern detection 8
Information Visualizer 17 research.microsoft.com/~ggr/gi97.ppt
Web Forager http://research.microsoft.com/ui/TaskGallery/index.htm 24
Robertson, Czerwinski et al, 1998 Follow-on to Information Visualizer Organizing bookmarks using pile metaphor Uses: Spatial organization 3D view with 2D interaction Cartoon animation details Subtle audio cues Debate: Is this better than 2D? Data Mountain
Task Gallery Robertson et al., 2000 http://research.microsoft.com/ui/TaskGallery/index.htm 23
3D vs. 2D • Cockburn & McKenzie ’02 • Results for prior work with 3D systems are primarily negative for viz of things that are not inherently in 3D, but really results are mixed • Compared 2D, 2½D and 3D views of web page thumbnails • Did this for both physical and virtual interfaces • Compared sparse, medium, and dense displays
3D vs. 2D • Cockburn & McKenzie ’02 • Results: • Time taken sig. increased through 2D -> 3D interfaces • Subjective assessment sig. decreased 2D -> 3D • Performance degraded with denser problems • 3D virtual interface produced the slowest times • People prefered the physical interfaces • People were better at using their spatial memory than they expected to be • There was a problem with the physical 2½D display
Interacting with 3D spaces • Path-drawing for 3D walkthrough, Igarashi et al, UIST ’98 • Problem: interacting with 3D via 2D screens • Solution: be clever about how to convert 2D to 3D based on what the user is likely to intend
The Role of Cognitive Abilities • Leitheiser & Munro ‘95 • Summarizes the results of earlier psychological research on spatial aptitiude • Also summarizes work on effects of spatial aptitude and UI use • Presents a study comparing a GUI with a command line interface, taking spatial abilities into account
The Role of Cognitive Abilities • Leitheiser & Munro ’95 • Hypotheses: • Users with high spatial ability would benefit more from the GUI than those with low spatial ability (H1) • Users with high verbal ability would perform better on command line interfaces (H2) • Tasks: • Obtain system time, list files, look up a file update time, open a subdirectory, move a file, copy a file, etc • Between subjects GUI (Mac) vs. Command line (DOS) • Findings: • H1 supported • H2 not supported • Everyone did better on the GUI • Low spatial ability users using the GUI required 90% of the time needed for command line interface
Infovis Meta-Analysis (Empirical studies of information visualization: a meta-analysis, Chen & Yu IJHCS 53(5),2000) • Goal • Find invariant underlying relations suggested collectively by empirical findings from many different studies • Procedure • Examine the literature of empirical infoviz studies • 35 studies between 1991 and 2000 • 27 focused on information retrieval tasks • But due to wide differences in the conduct of the studies and the reporting of statistics, could use only 6 studies
Infovis Meta-Analysis (Empirical studies of information visualization: a meta-analysis, Chen & Yu IJHCS 53(5),2000) • Conclusions: • IR Infoviz studies not reported in a standard format • Individual cognitive differences had the largest effect • Especially on accuracy • Somewhat on efficiency • Holding cognitive abilities constant, users did better with simpler visual-spatial interfaces • The combined effect of visualization is not statistically significant
Gender differences and 3D • Previous studies often found gender differences in 3D navigation • Czerwinski et al. wondered why; saw a hint in one study, did a followup study in detail • Idea: change the assumptions • Make screen wider • Gender performance differences disappear • Both improved
Sequences of Steps vs 3D + Animation • Heiser, Phan, Agarwala, Tversky, Hanrahan ‘04 • Domain: assembly instructions • Identify • How people conceive of 3D assemblies • How people comprehend visual instructions • Validate • Build automated instruction design system • Evaluate usability of resulting instructions Slides from Heiser et al.
Ensure Visibility of Parts • Show parts added in each step • Show mode and location of attachment • Avoid changing viewpoint • Use physically stable orientation Slides from Heiser et al.
Illustrate Assembly Operations • Use action diagrams rather than structural • Use arrows and guidelines to indicate attachment Structural diagrams Action diagrams Slides from Heiser et al.
Usability Study • 30 Participants • Given 1 of 3 instruction sets: hand-drawn, factory, computer • Assemble TV stand using instructions Slides from Heiser et al.
Instructions Tested Hand-drawn Factory Computer generated Slides from Heiser et al.
Results Time to assemble (min) • Errors:Hand-drawn 1.6 Factory 0.6 Computer 0.5 • Users rated task as easiest in computer condition 18.9 16.0 10.2 Hand-drawn Factory Computer Slides from Heiser et al.
Next Time • Martin Wattenberg! • SIMS distinguished lecture: 4-5:30pm • Our class too • Some of Martin’s Projects: • Map of the Market • Baby names visualizer • Music arcs • History flow • Bioinformatics visualization • Conversation visualization