The Nature of Organizations and the Creation of Order. CARDINAL STRITCH UNIVERSITY EDU 575: LEADING ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE Dr. Jackson Parker Dr. Robert Davidovich Dr. Kris Hipp. Organizations are About Creating Order. Have you ever taken the time to consider:.
CARDINAL STRITCH UNIVERSITY
EDU 575: LEADING ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE
Dr. Jackson Parker
Dr. Robert Davidovich
Dr. Kris Hipp
Have you ever taken the time to consider:
What do I believe about how order in human organizations is formed?
Order is inherently not present. Therefore it must be imposed by some outside authority.
Order is implicit.
It emerges naturally through relationships and interactions.
Order is inherently not present.
This view of order is rooted in classic, Newtonian science.
Newton’s laws helped create an image of an orderly universe pieced together like cogs in a giant machine.
“It was a world in which chance played no part.”
(Toffler, 1984, p. xiii)
Kepler, Descartes, Newton. The clock as the
model of the universe.
Horace Mann and The King of Prussia. (compulsory ed, graded schools, teacher training and certification, national testing, national curriculum, mandatory kindergarten). Why? To sort and indoctrinate!
The illiterate of the 21st century will not be those who cannot read and write, but those who cannot learn, unlearn, and relearn.
Command-and-control (supported by Newtonian Science) has been the basis of organization for three hundred years.
The world (from this perspective) would be considered to be governed by linear, mechanical, cause-and-effect relations, with all things being predictable and controllable.
1999, Barab, Cherkes-Julkowski,Swenson, Garrett, Shaw, and Young, Principles of Self-organization: Learning as Participation in Autocatakinetic Systems, The Journal of Learning Sciences
Source: Margaret Wheatley Finding Our Way
Patrick Dolan’s “System in Place”.
Strengths; works well with:
Source: Margaret Wheatley, Finding Our Way
“The Fundamental Laws of Science” … A creation of humans so we could feel more secure in a troubled and untidy world?
If the systems of the world (universe) are evolving, shouldn’t the “laws of science” be evolving too?
Time is real (Newtonian Physics says it is an illusion peculiar to humans), predictability is an illusion.
Three, plus time?
Five, Up, Up, and Away?
10 or 12, but we aren’t built to perceive them?
Think about Flatland; read the book, see the movie.
Edwin Abbott Abbott, 1884
Try the movie
1965, 1982, 2007
Really challenge yourself with the movie
What The Bleep Do We Know?
Continuum of Organizational Structure
Source: “Drivers of Change 2006-2016”, Knowledge Works Foundation, Spring 2008
This is different than the kinds of change we have tried to manage in the past …
these changes involve problems with complex dynamics – not linear, direct cause/effect relationships.
Changes of this nature require strategies that go beyond “either-or” thinking.
“Schools are not ‘broken’ and in need of fixing.
They are a social institution under stress that needs to evolve.”
What will cause the diverse innovations needed to lead to a coherent overall pattern of deep change?
I believe that the emerging understanding of living systems can guide thinking for the future.
(Schools That Learn, p.52)
Order is implicit.
This view of order is rooted in the understandings developed in the New Sciences
(Quantum Physics, Evolutionary Biology, Chaos Theory, Complexity Theory, Neuroscience, Thermodynamics)
One of the most important impacts of New Science understandings is that systems are:
Someone notices something and chooses to be disturbed – referencing that disturbance against why the organization exists.
The disturbance created is circulated through the networks of relationships.
Meaning is created as the disturbance is referenced against the common purpose. The meaning changes as each individual interacts with it. Eventually the meaning either amplifies or diminishes.
If the meaning grows to where the organization cannot ignore it, then adaptive action is possible.
“Purpose and principle, clearly understood and articulated, and commonly shared, are the genetic code of any healthy organization. To the degree that you hold purpose and principles in common among you, you can dispense with command-and-control.”
Dee Hock, founder and former CEO of VISA
Three conditions of self-organizing Organizations:
Identity: The sense-making capacity of the organization
Source: Finding Our Way
Information: The medium of the organization
Source: Finding Our Way
Relationships: The pathways of organization
Source: Finding Our Way
Where does an important form of school improvement fit into this discussion of order?
Shift in Scientific World View:
Old View: Reality is solid, separate, static, objectively measurable.
New View: Reality is emergent, potential, relationships (everything is connected); what you measure, you alter.
Teams are too dysfunctional:
Collective lowered IQ (Group think).
“I’ll tell you what I really think in the parking lot after the meeting.”
Creative Organization, Creative Communities
-Build bridges between scientific and artistic thinking and communities.
-Fissure or split between art and science is both unscientific and inartistic.
Both science and art are committed to both:
-Vision: Imagining the Dream; to see truths; to grasp the right; to help; to care and love; to understand; to create; to cherish the existence and inevitability of mystery.
-Reality: Unrelenting commitment to see/discover/depict reality as it is.
Peter Senge (last two slides, “Systems Thinking in Action”, 1995)
Nurturing leadership among staff
Shared power, authority and responsibility
Broad-based decision-making that reflects commitment and accountability
Administrators share power, authority, and decision-making, while promoting and nurturing leadership.
ParallelLeadership assumes equivalence of teacher and administrator leadership in school improvement processes to enhance school capacity.
Strategic Leaders Pedagogical Leaders
Grounded in the values of:
--Andrews & Crowther, 2002
Espoused values and norms
Focus on student learning with high expectations
Shared vision and “lived” values guide teaching and learning
The staff share visions that have an undeviating focus on student learning, and support norms of behavior that guide decisions about teaching and learning.
“A central, bedrock belief deeply understood and shared by every member of the organization. Core values guide the actions of everyone in the organization; they focus its energy and are the anchor point for all its plans.”--Jon Saphier & John D’AuriaHow to Bring Vision to School Improvement
“The organization becomes a living entity, of which each member of the collective body is a guardian, engaged in bringing about the group’s purpose. Building shared understanding of the grand vision is a continuous process of endless dialogue.”---Charlotte Roberts
Sharing information and dialogue
Collaboration and problem solving
Application of knowledge, skills and strategies
The staff share information and work collaboratively to plan, solve problems, and improve learning opportunities.
Peer observations to offer knowledge, skills and encouragement
Sharing outcomes of instructional practices and feedback to improve these practices
Analysis of student work and related practices
Peers meet and observe one another to provide feedback on instructional practices, to assist in student learning, and to increase human capacity.
-- Supovitz & Christman, 2003
Don’t use data in stupid ways.
Don’t use research in simple-minded ways.
Do use management data as well as achievement data.
Focus on questions, not data. Use relevant data to help raise, discuss, and answer the questions.
Learn how to ask the right and essential questions.
Not all test scores are worth using. Not all research is good. Get skilled at distinguishing the difference.
Pay attention to your district’s Data Quality, Data Capacity, and Data Culture.
Learn to distinguish between data that help instructional decisions and those that don’t.
Data are not information, knowledge, or wisdom (the latter three are only possible when data are thoughtfully processed by the human mind).
Learn more about stats, research design, and measurement.
Thoughtful and informed collaboration around what the data mean is more powerful than taking one person’s analysis as the truth.
Review David Bohm on The Incoherence of Thought…we create our own realities, and “the data” are one more creation of human thought and perception.
Being “driven by data” has a psychopathic sound to it.
Consider cohort data, long term data (what and how are your graduates doing? For elementary, how are your kids doing in middle school; for 6th grade, how are your kids doing in 7th grade, etc.), and data other than achievement test data.
Can students help you gather and analyze data? Why not?
The New Stupid: “If you can’t measure it, it doesn’t matter”
The Old Stupid: “Test scores and data don’t matter, they don’t tell us what’s important, they’ll only be used to stifle creative learning and punish (my) creative teaching…(and I don’t understand all that research gibberish anyway).
For insight on the last two bullets, refer yet again to Bohn and The Incoherence of Thought, in the first Power Point.
Everything the previous bullets said about data can also apply to the buzz phrase “research-based best practice”.
Read the entire December 08/January 09 issue of Education Leadership. This slide and the previous three are based on it, especially articles by Frederick Hess, David Ronka, Mary Ann Lachat, Rachel Slaughter, Julie Meltzer, Paul Barton, Richard Coley, Bill Preble, Larry Taylor, Roberta Buhle, Camille L.Z. Blacowicz, Jennifer L. Steele, Kathryn Parker Boudett, Elliot Washor, Karen Arnold, Charles Mojkowski, Mike Schmoker, and James Popham.
Jack Parker once lost a debate with Jim Popham. The debate question? “Resolved, standardized tests and testing should be eliminated from PK-12 education” Jack unwisely agreed to argue the affirmative.
“Signs of health in community rest not in how interconnected and bonded the group feels, but how flexibly and responsively it moves from its existing reality toward the one it desires.” --Gozdz, 2000
Module, pp. 142-148
“My premise is that this culture, and we as members of it, have yielded too easily to what is doable and practical…In the process we have sacrificed the pursuit of what is in our hearts. We find ourselves giving in to our doubts, and settling for what we know how to do, or can learn to do, instead of pursuing what matters most to us and living with the adventure and anxiety that this requires.”--Peter Block, 2002, The Answer to How is Yes
“Ultimately, your leadership in a culture of change will be judged as effective or ineffective not by who you are as a leader but by what leadership you produce in others.”--Fullan, 2003
What implications do command-and-control, self-organization, and PLCs have for your SIP?