The internet and its applications
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The Internet and Its Applications Chapter 9 The Internet Three aspects of the Internet evolution Capacity growth Application and traffic growth Internet policy change Internet Capacity

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The internet l.jpg
The Internet

  • Three aspects of the Internet evolution

    • Capacity growth

    • Application and traffic growth

    • Internet policy change


Internet capacity l.jpg
Internet Capacity

ARPANET (1969): The Internet was started by the U.S. Department of Defense as a network of four computers.

- 1974, 62 hosts

- 1983, 1000 hosts

- 1989, decommissioned

NSFNET (1986): Built up by National Science Foundation with a 3-tier structure

- 1987, 10,000 hosts in the Internet, 1000 in BITNET

- 1988, upgraded to T1 (1.544 Mbps).

- 1991, upgraded to T3 (45Mbps)

- 1995, decommissioned

vBNS (1995): 622Mbps in 1995

vBNS+ (now): 2.5 Gbps (or more)


Nsfnet l.jpg
NSFNET

By 1991, the NSFNET's

backbone network service

has been upgraded to

T3 (45 Mbps) links


Internet policy l.jpg
Internet Policy

Originally, commercial traffic was forbidden on the Internet, because the major portions of these networks were funded by the various national governments and research organizations.

In the early 1990s, commercial networks began connecting into these networks, opening it to commercial traffic.


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Today’s Internet

  • Network access point (NAP)

    • The NAP is defined as a high-speed network or switch to which a number of routers can be connected for the purpose of traffic exchange. NAPs must operate at speeds of at least 100 Mbps and must be able to be upgraded as required by demand and usage.

    • The concept of the NAP is built on the FIX (Federal Internet eXchange) and the CIX (Commercial Internet eXchange), which are built around FDDI rings with attached Internet networks operating at speeds of up to 45 Mbps.


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Abilene

vBNS

CA*Net 3

Figure 9-11 Gigapops and high speed backbones of Internet 2/Abilene, vBNS, and CA*Net 3


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Abilene

  • Abilene is an advanced backbone network that supports the development and deployment of the new applications being developed within the Internet2 community. Abilene connects regional network aggregation points, called gigaPoPs, to support the work of Internet2 universities as they develop advanced Internet applications. Abilene complements other high-performance research networks.


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Some vBNS Facts (2001)

  • Speed: 2.5 Gbps (OC-48)

  • Multi-protocol Label Switching (MPLS)

  • 0.001% Packet loss and 100% availability

  • both unicast and multicast

  • IPv6 enabled

  • Extends to Europe and Asia


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Internet Hosts Growth

(Recent statistics)

July 1999:56,218,000 Internet hosts

January 2000: 68,862,283 Internet hosts

July 2000: 86,509,613 Internet hosts

January 2001: 113,873,000 Internet hosts (MIDS)



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Local ISP

Local ISP

National ISP

Regional ISP

Regional ISP

NAP

National ISP

National ISP

National ISP

Regional ISP

NAP

National ISP

National ISP

Regional ISP

Regional ISP

Local ISP

Regional ISP

Regional ISP

Regional ISP

Regional ISP

Regional ISP

Regional ISP

MAE

Local ISP

Regional ISP

Regional ISP

Local ISP

Regional ISP

Local ISP

Local ISP

Local ISP

Local ISP

Local ISP

Local ISP

Local ISP

Figure 9-1 Basic Internet Architecture

Local ISP

MAE: Metropolitan area exchanger


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ISP POP

Individual

Dial-up Customers

ISP Point-of Presence

Modem Pool

ISP POP

Corporate

T1 Customer

T1 CSU/DSU

Layer-2

Switch

ATM

Switch

ISP POP

Corporate

T3 Customer

T3 CSU/DSU

Remote

Access

Server

Corporate

OC-3 Customer

ATM Switch

NAP/MAE

Figure 9-2 Inside an ISP Point of Presence


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ISP A

ISP D

Router

Router

ATM

Switch

ISP B

ISP E

Router

ATM Switch

ISP C

Route

Server

ISP F

Router

ATM Switch

Figure 9-3 Inside the Internet’s Chicago Network Access Point


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Customer Premises

Individual Premise

Main

Distribution

Frame

Voice

Telephone

Network

DSL Modem

Line Splitter

Hub

Individual

Premise

Telephone

Wireless

Transceiver

DSL Access

Multiplexer

Individual

Premise

Computer

Computer

Wireless Access Office

Customer

Premises

Wireless

Transceiver

Router

Customer

Premises

ISP POP

Figure 9-9 Fixed wireless architecture


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WAP Client

WAP Gateway

Web Site

WAE

User

Agent

Web Server

WAE

Requests

Wireless

Transceiver

Wireless Telephony

Application Server

WAE

Requests

WAE

Responses

(plus WML, etc.)

WAE

Responses

(plus WML, etc.)

WAE

Responses

(plus WML, etc.)

WAE

Requests

HTTP Requests

WAP Proxy

HTTP Responses

(plus HTML, jpeg, etc.)

Figure 9-10 Mobile wireless architecture for WAP applications


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Sprint

Abilene

UUNet

CA*Net 3

Verio

DREN

WSU

Router

Boeing

Router

Router

Microsoft

U Idaho

Switch

Switch

Router

Router

Montana State U

HSCC

High-speed

Router

High-speed

Router

Router

AT&T

U Montana

Router

Switch

Switch

SCCD

Router

Sprint

U Alaska

U Wash

OC-48

OC-12

T-3

Portland POP

Figure 9-12 Inside the Pacific/Northwest Gigapop


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