The History of Dengue Research before 1950 A Forgotten History ? - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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The History of Dengue Research before 1950 A Forgotten History ?

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  1. The History of Dengue Research before 1950A Forgotten History ?

  2. Early Dengue Investigationin the Shadow of Yellow Fever Research

  3. Reminder“Dengue”=dengue or dengue-like illnessPeriod covered: 1890-1950

  4. Important Events: 1897-98 1. “Filterable agent” [=virus] 2. Vector-borne transmission 3. Extrinsic incubation period 4. Controversy on etiology of YF 5. Dengue outbreaks in Texas 6. Spanish-American War

  5. George Miller Sternberg(Source: U.S. Army Archive)

  6. Walter Reed (Source: U.S. Army Archive)

  7. Farewell Clara….Clara was buried in Havana, Cuba and later reburied in New Jersey at Fairmount Cemetery .

  8. Charles Franklin Craig (Source: Am. J. Trop. Med., 1951)

  9. Vector-Borne Transmission of Human Diseases:Historical Events before Dengue Research

  10. Patrick Manson(Source: U.S. Army Archives)

  11. Ronald Ross(Source: U.S. Army Archive)

  12. Carlos Juan Finlay (Source: Univ. Virginia Claude Moore Health Science Library)

  13. Photo Henry Rose Carter (Source: Am. J. Publ. Hlth. 15:994; 1926)

  14. Etiologic Investigation:Transmission Mechanism

  15. Experimental Design for Dengue Transmission Studies Source of “infectious agent” 2. Location for human experiment

  16. Special Considerations for Human Experiment • Informed Consent • Monetary Reward

  17. Dengue Transmission Mechanism:Early Researchers

  18. Harris Graham (Source: American University of Beirut, Lebanon)

  19. Dengue Studies in Cubaby the Former Members of the Walter Reed Commission: Left—Aristides Agramonte; Right– Juan Guiteras (Source of photos: Wikipedia Commons)

  20. T.L. Bancroft (Source: Courtesy of Australian Nat. Univ.)

  21. Percy M. Ashburn(Source: U.S. Army Archive)

  22. Makoto Koizumi(Source: The 50-year history (1929-79) of parasitologic research in Japan. Japanese Society of Parasitologists, 1981)

  23. J. Burton Cleland (Source: Courtesy: Australian National University)

  24. Joseph Franklin Siler(Source: U.S. Army Archive)

  25. James S. Simmons (Source: U.S. Army Archive)

  26. Emilius Paulus Snijders (Source: Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands)

  27. Dutch group portrait by Lizzy Ansingh (1933): From left to right-van Loghem, Kuenen, Schueffner, Swellengrebel, Snijders (Source: Univ. Museum Amsterdam)

  28. Etiologic Investigation: Virus Isolation

  29. Susumu Hotta (Source: Kobe University School of Medicine, Kobe, Japan)

  30. Mrs. Mochizuki (Source: S. Hotta-- Uirusu, 51:106; 2001)

  31. Albert B. Sabin (Courtesy: U.S. Army )

  32. Sabin visiting Hotta at Kobe University, 1961 (Source: Kobe University, Kobe, Japan)

  33. Cornelius Becker Philip (Source: J. Parasitol. 73:678)

  34. Laboratory-identified DengueViruses Year Location Serotype • Nagasaki, Japan DENV-1 1943-44 Hawaii DENV-1 • New Guinea DENV-1 and DENV-2

  35. Serologically-identified Viruses 1924-25 Philippines DENV-4 1925-26 QLD, Australia DENV-1 • South Africa DENV-1 1929-30 Philippines DENV-1 • QLD, Australia DENV-2/DENV-1 • Singapore DENV-1 1944-45 Guam DENV-2(DENV-1?) • Calcutta, India DENV-1 1942-44 Japan DENV-1(DENV-2?)

  36. Clinical Definition of “Dengue”- a Source of Constant Controversy • Variation depending on physicians, year, location, and unknown human conditions 2. “Typical” vs “atypical” symptoms 3. Syndrome in human experiment as ‘standard” 4. Confusion with other etiologies

  37. Atypical Clinical Symptoms or Syndromes:Extensive Hemorrhage and/or Shock with Fatal Outcome

  38. F. E. Hare (Source: J. Aaskov, Austr. Defense Force Health 4:66;2003)

  39. Hemorrhagic Manifestations and Fatality Diagnosis: Rumpell-Leede test (=Tourniquet test) Borbely’s vascular resistance test Study: Correlations among increased vascular permeability, thrombocytopenia, and hemorrhage

  40. (Source: www.historyplace.com)

  41. Selected Records of Fatal Cases 1895-1926 Australia 816 QLD, Australia 97 1904-05 Australia 201 Australia 93 1907-09 Vietnam 4 Okinawa, Japan 508 Taiwan 26 1943-44 Philippines 7 Taiwan 5

  42. Fatal Non-Fatal [A] 1897 - 1902 [B] 1926 - 1931 [C] 1940 - 1944

  43. Other “Unusual” Syndromes1. CNS syndrome2. Pulmonary syndrome

  44. 3. Ophthalmologic Dysfunctions(Source:Yuguchi, Kai-Gun-Ikai-Shi 32:627;1943)

  45. Medical Care Antipyretics Salicylates (Aspirin-contraindicant) Immunotherapy Blood transfusion

  46. Pandemic Pattern of Dengue Spread and Human Movement

  47. The Importance of Human Movement by Ships andthe Critical Roles played by the Physicians on board for unraveling Dengue Transmission