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Water H 2 O, Sea Water and what it means to life in the ocean…. Figure 3.01 Hydrogen Bonds, Between water molecules Are weak, but IMPORTANT! States of water Water occurs as solid, liquid & gas naturally No hydrogen bonds in water vapor

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Water l.jpg
Water

  • H2O, Sea Water and what it means to life in the ocean….


Figure 3 01 l.jpg
Figure 3.01

Hydrogen Bonds,

Between water molecules

Are weak, but

IMPORTANT!


States of water l.jpg
States of water

  • Water occurs as solid, liquid & gas naturally

  • No hydrogen bonds in water vapor

  • Some molecules joined by hydrogen bonds in liquid – bonds break & reform

  • All molecules rigidly bonded in solid



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Heat and Water

  • Adding heat makes molecules vibrate

  • Heat energy is used to cause vibration AND to break hydrogen bonds


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Heat and Water

  • Ice melts at relatively high temperatures compared to similar substances

    • (OoC instead of –90oC)


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Water = Universal Solvent

  • Good at dissolving salts (the solutes)

  • Salts exist as separate ions in seawater


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Seawater

  • Salts come from weathering of rock or outgassing from hydrothermal vents

  • Sodium and Chloride account for 85% of the dissolved solids (solutes) in sea water.

  • This makes it various degrees of SALINE: “total amount of salt dissolved in sea water”



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SeaWater

  • WHERE does the “salt” come from?

  • And WHAT else is in the water?


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Salinity

  • The total amount of dissolved salts in seawater

  • Measured in parts per thousand (ppt or o/oo)

  • Average salinity of sea water is 35%


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Density of (sea)water

  • Density also affects the salinity of water

  • Liquid water gets denser as the temperature decreases

  • BUT ice is LESS dense than liquid water

  • Increases with decreasing temperature

  • Increases with increasing salinity


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Temp. of ocean surface: cold = blue, warm = red

Typical Ocean temp. range are 28-86 degrees F


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Stratified Ocean (3 Layers)

  • Salinity, Temperature and Density all effect ocean waters giving OCEAN GRADIENTS or stratified layers.

  • Dense, cold water @ bottom

  • Less dense, warmer water @ surface (floating on layer below)


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3 layered Ocean

  • Surface “mixed” layer: 100-200 m thick

  • Mid “intermediate” layer: 200-1500 m thick contains the main thermocline (transition zone between warm and cold top/bottom layers)

  • Deep “bottom” layer: after 1500 m






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Light in the ocean

  • Transparency depends on what is suspended in the water

  • Different colors penetrate to different depths




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Pressure

  • Water is heavier than air

  • Pressure changes ( a lot!) w/ increased water depth

  • 1 atm. of pressure = sea level (on land) but in ocean each 10 m of depth (33’) you add another atm. of pressure



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Water, salinity, light, pressure, depth

  • How does this affect marine “life?”


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Life in the Ocean

  • Deal with challenges that are unique to marine environment

  • Must maintain suitable conditions inside the organism’s body



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Figure 4.13a

More salt in cell,

Water diffuses in

to cell, it will swell

and burst.


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Figure 4.13c

More salt outside cell,

Water moves out

of cell, it will shrivel.




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Figure 3.14 excess salt

Groupers swim bladder has expanded, due to pressure, thus stomach has

Been forced through mouth!


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Buoyancy excess salt

Two deep-sea fishes on the deck of a ship after being hauled up from a depth of 800 m. Both fishes were seriously damaged and distorted by the rapid expansion of gases in their swim bladders as they were brought to the surface.


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Buoyancy excess salt

Fnft: A physoclistous swim bladder and associated blood vessels.


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Temperature excess salt

  • How does this effect marine organisms?

  • It dictates where they live and metabolize



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Temperature Regulation excess salt

  • Most marine animals are ectotherms (“cold-blooded”)


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Temperature Regulation excess salt

  • Most marine animals are ectotherms (“cold-blooded”)

  • Mammals and birds are endotherms

    • Use fat, feathers for insulation


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Temperature excess salt

  • Most marine animals are adapted to living at a specific temperature

    • Temperature determines species ranges


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New Topic excess salt

  • Tides…


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Tides excess salt

  • Tides

  • Tide Tables

  • Waves

  • Weather (resultant)


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Waves excess salt


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Orbits excess salt


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Waves in a Bay excess salt


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Hitting the shore excess salt


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Tides excess salt

  • How do we calculate tides?

  • Tide tables

  • Semidiurnal Tides (in Northeast)

  • Spring vs. Neap tides


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Tides… excess salt

  • …effect marine life too…


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Low Tide…and offshore excess salt

Thailand, Tsunami


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Grunion excess salt


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