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Water

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  1. Water • H2O, Sea Water and what it means to life in the ocean….

  2. Figure 3.01 Hydrogen Bonds, Between water molecules Are weak, but IMPORTANT!

  3. States of water • Water occurs as solid, liquid & gas naturally • No hydrogen bonds in water vapor • Some molecules joined by hydrogen bonds in liquid – bonds break & reform • All molecules rigidly bonded in solid

  4. Figure 3.02

  5. Heat and Water • Adding heat makes molecules vibrate • Heat energy is used to cause vibration AND to break hydrogen bonds

  6. Heat and Water • Ice melts at relatively high temperatures compared to similar substances • (OoC instead of –90oC)

  7. Water = Universal Solvent • Good at dissolving salts (the solutes) • Salts exist as separate ions in seawater

  8. Seawater • Salts come from weathering of rock or outgassing from hydrothermal vents • Sodium and Chloride account for 85% of the dissolved solids (solutes) in sea water. • This makes it various degrees of SALINE: “total amount of salt dissolved in sea water”

  9. Figure 3.05

  10. SeaWater • WHERE does the “salt” come from? • And WHAT else is in the water?

  11. Salinity • The total amount of dissolved salts in seawater • Measured in parts per thousand (ppt or o/oo) • Average salinity of sea water is 35%

  12. Density of (sea)water • Density also affects the salinity of water • Liquid water gets denser as the temperature decreases • BUT ice is LESS dense than liquid water • Increases with decreasing temperature • Increases with increasing salinity

  13. Temp. of ocean surface: cold = blue, warm = red Typical Ocean temp. range are 28-86 degrees F

  14. Stratified Ocean (3 Layers) • Salinity, Temperature and Density all effect ocean waters giving OCEAN GRADIENTS or stratified layers. • Dense, cold water @ bottom • Less dense, warmer water @ surface (floating on layer below)

  15. 3 layered Ocean • Surface “mixed” layer: 100-200 m thick • Mid “intermediate” layer: 200-1500 m thick contains the main thermocline (transition zone between warm and cold top/bottom layers) • Deep “bottom” layer: after 1500 m

  16. Figure 3.17

  17. Figure 3.25

  18. Figure 3.21

  19. Figure 3.15a

  20. Light in the ocean • Transparency depends on what is suspended in the water • Different colors penetrate to different depths

  21. Figure 3.11

  22. Figure 3.11

  23. Pressure • Water is heavier than air • Pressure changes ( a lot!) w/ increased water depth • 1 atm. of pressure = sea level (on land) but in ocean each 10 m of depth (33’) you add another atm. of pressure

  24. Figure 3.13

  25. Water, salinity, light, pressure, depth • How does this affect marine “life?”

  26. Life in the Ocean • Deal with challenges that are unique to marine environment • Must maintain suitable conditions inside the organism’s body

  27. Figure 4.13b

  28. Figure 4.13a More salt in cell, Water diffuses in to cell, it will swell and burst.

  29. Figure 4.13c More salt outside cell, Water moves out of cell, it will shrivel.

  30. Figure 4.14a

  31. Hawksbills’ “excrete” glands (near eyes) to get rid of excess salt

  32. Figure 3.14 Groupers swim bladder has expanded, due to pressure, thus stomach has Been forced through mouth!

  33. Buoyancy Two deep-sea fishes on the deck of a ship after being hauled up from a depth of 800 m. Both fishes were seriously damaged and distorted by the rapid expansion of gases in their swim bladders as they were brought to the surface.

  34. Buoyancy Fnft: A physoclistous swim bladder and associated blood vessels.

  35. Temperature • How does this effect marine organisms? • It dictates where they live and metabolize

  36. Temperature regions of the worlds oceans

  37. Temperature Regulation • Most marine animals are ectotherms (“cold-blooded”)

  38. Temperature Regulation • Most marine animals are ectotherms (“cold-blooded”) • Mammals and birds are endotherms • Use fat, feathers for insulation

  39. Temperature • Most marine animals are adapted to living at a specific temperature • Temperature determines species ranges

  40. New Topic • Tides…

  41. Tides • Tides • Tide Tables • Waves • Weather (resultant)

  42. Waves

  43. Orbits