Unmanned Aircraft Systems - UAS Enabling America’s Next Generation of Aviation Vehicles 30th Annual FAA Aviation Forecast Conference Washington, DC March 18, 2005
“The trouble with the future is that it usually arrives before we’re ready for it.” Arnold H. Glasow 2
Creating the Future When asked, “To what point do you think airplanes will be developed?” “There is no way of telling. Things are moving too fast. No one can predict where it will end.” Orville Wright, January 1938 – Celebration in his honor on the 34th anniversary of the first flight. UAS’s are Experiencing Similar Growth as Early Aviation
Two UAS Perspectives Viewed as a Disruptive Technology -or- A Positive Step in the Evolution of Aeronautics • Radar • Jet propulsion • GPS • ?Unmanned flight?
A Glimpse of the Future A Part of the Aviation RevolutionUnlimited Applications • Military/Security • Defense • Civil • Defense • Natural Disasters • Humanitarian Relief • Science • Environment • Weather & Storm Tracking • Commercial • Wireless Communications • Precision Agriculture • Cargo Transport Dull, Dirty, Dangerous Missions
Unmanned Aircraft System A System – Not limited to an Aircraft Pilot
A Global Challenge:UAS Access to Civil Airspace • Managing Expectations • Domestic • International • Creating an Environment of Trust • Making Positive Progress • Making Communications and Collaborations Effective • Outreach to Stakeholders
Potential Joint Civil/DoD/DHS UAS Operating Environment
UAS Assumptions • UAVs will need access to the NAS comparable to manned aircraft. • DoD and DHS) will be first major UAS operators in the NAS. • FAA must be alert to new challenges posed by small UAVs operating in increasing numbers at very low altitudes. • FAA should lead discussions with foreign airspace authorities to ensure global airspace harmonization and interoperability. Source UNTF Report 10-22-04
UAV Altitude/Classification U-2 HAE 70K Global Hawk 60K Heron 2 Predator B 50K Altitude 40K 30K Medium Heron 1 Predator A 20K Eagle Eye, Fire scout, Hunter, Pioneer 10K 10 20 Tactical 30 Endurance (hours)
Significant Increases in UAV Operations inthe National Airspace System are Inevitable • Routine access into US civil managed airspace is necessary to fulfill operational and economic potential • Significant increase in domestic UAS flight operations are feasible and expected • UASs support societal needs, including security, defense and civil applications • Technological advances will produce less expensive UASs • Increasing public awareness and acceptance of UASs Source UNTF Report 10-22-04
UAS Operations in the NAS • High Altitude UAS’s will have Minimal Impact on Manned Aircraft Operations. • Medium Altitude UAS’s Will Share the Same Airspace as Most Manned Civil Transports and Military Aircraft. • Low Altitude UAS’s Will Share Airspace with Smaller Manned Aircraft, Including Helicopters. • Large Numbers of Very Low Altitude UAS’s Source UNTF Report 10-22-04
Federal Aviation Act of 1958 • Directs FAA as the “single manager” of the National Airspace System (NAS) to develop and operate a common system of air traffic control and navigation for both civil and military aircraft. • Control the use of navigable airspace of the US and regulate both civil and military operations in such airspace in the interest of the safety and efficiency of both.
Access 5 Partnership AeroVironment Aurora Flight Sciences Boeing General Atomics Northrop Grumman Lockheed Martin www.access5.org www.unitealliance.com
Fundamental Issues • Programmatic • Aircraft Airworthiness • Civil Certification • Aircraft • Operators • Air Traffic Management (ATM) • Standards • Regulatory • Preservation of the Safety and Sanctity of the NAS • FAA Acceptance • ICAO Acceptance • Political – How to Manage the Transition • U.S. • International
Funded PlanFocus on Steps 1 and 2 Standard Certificate of Airworthiness Certification Special Airworthiness Certification Current Funded Effort STEP 4 Establish Type Certification Basis STEP 3 Experimental Certification Routine Operations Above FL 180 Through C, D, E Airspace Emergency to ROA Airport STEP 2 Routine Operations Above FL 180 Through C, D, E Airspace STEP 1 Routine Operations Above FL 180 Through Restricted Airspace Operations Routine Operations Above FL 400 Through Restricted Airspace Achieve Routine Access in the NAS for HALE ROA
Overview of Activities in FY04 • Secured major funding commitment for Steps 1 and 2 • $101 million by NASA; $36 million by industry • Fostered critical relationships for Project engagement • Established vital relationships with government and current NAS users (e.g., FAA, DoD, DHS, JPDO, ALPA, AOPA, ATCA,NATCA) • UNITE Companies & NASA Sign Joint Sponsored Research Agreement - JSRA • Participate on RTCA Special Committee 203/ • UAS Standards
RTCA Special Committee 203 "RTCA has established Special Committee 203 (SC-203) at the request of the Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association and the Federal Aviation Administration. The committee will initially focus on developing recommendations that will assure the safe operation of UAVs within the National Airspace System.” • Requested by AOPA • Supported by the FAA • Industry/Government Participation • Manufacturers, operators, agencies
RTCA SC 203 Terms of Reference • The initial Terms of Reference (TOR) for SC-203 call for three initial products to be generated, as follows: • Minimum Aviation System Performance Standards (MASPS) for Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) • Due date -- December 2005. • MASPS for Command, Control and Communication (C3) Systems for Unmanned Aircraft Systems • Due date -- June 2006. • MASPS for Sense and Avoid (SA) Systems for Unmanned Aircraft Systems • Due date -- December 2007.
RTCA Special Committee 203 Goals and Objectives • Support Industry’s and Government’s desire to operate Unmanned Aircraft (UA) in the National Airspace System (NAS) • Ensure Standards are developed that are useable in certifying UA systems, while maintaining safety and efficiency of the NAS. • Ensure International continuity.
SUMMARY • We have embarked on a historical project that will define the safe integration of UAS’s into the NAS • We represent the rounded mix of necessary experts from industry, government and all segments of aviation that has been assembled to plan for this challenging task. • This is a Global challenge We are the pioneers, it is up to us