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Intelligent Robotics An Introduction The King’s Academy November 2, 2007 Basic Definitions Artificial Intelligence Study intelligence Apply – design intelligent systems Purpose – to better serve mankind Basic Definitions Robot Embodied Autonomous Agent Intelligent robot

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intelligent robotics an introduction

Intelligent RoboticsAn Introduction

The King’s Academy

November 2, 2007

basic definitions
Basic Definitions
  • Artificial Intelligence
    • Study intelligence
    • Apply – design intelligent systems
    • Purpose – to better serve mankind

The King's Academy

basic definitions3
Basic Definitions
  • Robot
    • Embodied
    • Autonomous
    • Agent
  • Intelligent robot
    • + Intelligent

The King's Academy

embodied
Embodied
  • Situated
    • Located in the world
  • Sensor (receptor)
    • Receive “raw” information about world
  • Effector (actuator)
    • Accomplish an action
      • with respect to self
      • with respect to world
    • “one who brings about a result or event; one who accomplishes a purpose”

The King's Academy

autonomous
Autonomous
  • Autos :: self
  • Nomos :: law
  • Definition
    • Self-governing
      • Note: The term cybernetics stems from the Greek Κυβερνήτης (kybernetes, steersman, governor, pilot, or rudder — the same root as government).
    • Independent in mind or judgment
    • Self-directing
    • Not controlled by others or outside forces

The King's Academy

agent
Agent
  • Definition
    • One that acts or has power/authority to act
    • One that represents another
    • Root meaning – one that acts or exerts power
    • Means of effecting a result
  • Software agent (David Croft)
    • Delegacy – discretionary authority
    • Competence
    • Amenability – ability to adapt
    • Software resident

The King's Academy

intelligence
Intelligence
  • Many definitions
  • MSN Encarta: “general mental capability to reason, solve problems, think abstractly, learn and understand new material, and profit from past experience. Intelligence can be measured by many different kinds of tasks . . . Intelligence draws on a variety of mental processes, including memory, learning, perception, decision-making, thinking, and reasoning.”
  • Einstein: “Imagination is more important than knowledge.”
  • Henk Tuten: “complex use of creativity”

The King's Academy

intelligence8
Intelligence
  • Another view
  • Creative simplicity
  • Examples
    • Every mileage divisible by 3000
    • Cutting the Gordian knot
    • Efficient use of cars

The King's Academy

robot primitives murphy
Robot “Primitives” – Murphy
  • Sense
  • Plan
  • Act
  • 4th – Learn

The King's Academy

origin of robot basics
Origin of Robot Basics
  • Serve  Act
  • Autonomous  Sense

The King's Academy

origin of robot basics11
Origin of Robot Basics
  • The most basic ::
    • Act
    • Sense

The King's Academy

origin of robot basics12
Origin of Robot Basics
  • Serve  Act
  • Autonomous  Sense
  • Changing environment  Plan
  • Plan  Reason
  • Plan  Represent knowledge
  • Knowledge  Learning

The King's Academy

robot basics
Robot Basics
  • Sense
  • Act
  • Represent knowledge
  • Reason
  • Learn

The King's Academy

robot action paradigms
Robot Action Paradigms
  • Deliberative
  • Reactive
  • Hybrid – deliberative/reactive

The King's Academy

deliberative paradigm
Deliberative Paradigm
  • Emphasis – knowledge representation
  • Detailed plan generation
  • Computationally expensive
  • Example
    • Shakey
    • Stanford Research Institute
  • Frame problem

The King's Academy

reactive paradigm
Reactive Paradigm
  • Emphasis – sense/act coupling
  • Knowledge resides in world
  • Simple animal intelligence
    • Insects
    • Frog
  • Example
    • Roomba
    • Rodney Brooks
    • iRobot
  • Limited operability

The King's Academy

hybrid paradigm
Hybrid Paradigm
  • Emphasis – behavior set
  • Knowledge base & reasoning
  • Action triggers
  • Example
    • Minerva
    • Sebastian Thrun
    • CMU & U/Bonn
  • Limits unknown

The King's Academy

unexplored possibilities
Unexplored Possibilities
  • Assistive robotics
    • Physical therapy
    • Occupational therapy
  • Swarm Intelligence
  • Autonomous vehicles
  • Example
    • Little Ben
    • Lehigh, Penn, Lockheed
  • DARPA Grand Challenge

The King's Academy

1000 mile journey
1000 Mile Journey
  • Single steps
    • Mathematics
    • Computer science
    • Not a hoof left behind
  • Faithful servant
    • Share Master’s joy
  • Heads or Tails
    • You shall be the head and not the tail

The King's Academy

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