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EST-200, Cultural Ecology, Review for Final. Dr. Betty Faust SUNY ESF. NEW OPTIONS. Ecojustice Biophysical economics Sustainable development Community based conservation work Alternative livelihoods for rural residents . Biosphere Planning . Parks - natural protected areas - no people?

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EST-200, Cultural Ecology, Review for Final


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Presentation Transcript
new options
NEW OPTIONS
  • Ecojustice
  • Biophysical economics
  • Sustainable development
  • Community based conservation work
  • Alternative livelihoods for rural residents
biosphere planning
Biosphere Planning
  • Parks - natural protected areas - no people?
  • Commercial, intensive agriculture
    • sustainable?
    • Cattle? Pigs? Chickens?
  • Western Dichotomies - nature vs. culture
  • Indigenous integration? Cycles?
urban planning
Urban Planning
  • Concentrate people
  • Save nature
  • Green cities?
  • Effects on biosphere?
    • Externalities
      • sewage
      • food
      • water
seas world ocean
Seas - world ocean
  • Over-fishing - modern technologies on boats
  • Aqua culture - damage to mangroves and reefs
  • Coral reefs - whitening, sick
  • Sea turtles, whales - tumors (concentrate contaminants)
atmosphere
Atmosphere
  • Holes in ozone layer, global warming
  • Natural variations in climate over time
    • sunspots
    • earth orbit
  • Average global temperature
    • wind patterns, rainfall
    • ocean temperatures
solutions
Solutions?
  • Carbon credits - reforesting, protecting
  • Indigenous knowledge & science
  • Sustainable management of resources
    • histories of use
    • monitoring
    • compensation to native managers
    • DECENTRALIZATION
globalization
Globalization
  • National governments vs. local communities and their environment
  • National governments vs. International organizations - United Nations, World Bank, Global Environmental Facility, International Union for the Conservation of Nature, CITES, Rio, Johannesburg, etc.
force or incentives
Force or Incentives
  • Wars over resources, ethnicities vs. nations
    • oil
    • water
    • soil
    • forests
  • TRAGEDY of the Commons?
    • Traditions plus
    • New forms of local administration
    • Incentives
the plumed serpent
The Plumed Serpent & $$$
  • Stages
    • traditional way of life, how we do things
    • progress, buying new things, learning new ways
    • assessment
      • what have we lost?
losses
Losses
  • Social \
    • teen-agers, alcohol, drugs, rape, pregnancies
    • wife beating, violent fights, alcoholism
    • divorces, children suffering, grandparents as buffer
    • moving out, searching for jobs - lack of local resources, poor prices for products
losses1
LOSSES
  • Resources - ecosystem services
    • timber, animals - for sale
    • wood for household use, furniture, building
    • rainfall patterns affected by deforestation
    • soil gradually declining in fertility
    • smaller yards for producing food - pop. growth
    • few animals to hunt
cognitive symbolic losses
Cognitive-symbolic losses
  • Ritual symbolism
  • New - media images, political slogans
    • Earth as island floating in space
    • Slogans - Thing globally, act locally
  • Old - Plumed serpent in ritual context
    • order of time and space, sex-gender, generations, fertility of soil and humans
    • connections, cycles, living lightly
recommendation
Recommendation
  • Working with the elders to rescue the local eco-history, traditional management strategies, knowledge of ecosystem, weather cycles, etc.
  • Documenting the new elements
  • Analyzing what information they need about long term consequences, alternatives.

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actions
ACTIONS
  • Visits to other communities, seeing is believing what can happen
  • Trying alternatives with them
  • Teaching monitoring skills
  • Educating leaders & community with AV materials
  • Livelihood protection - alternatives