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Prologue. Designer: Eric Kimsey The following powerpoint presentation was designed to fulfill the requirements of the TAPS program at Jefferson Labs in Newport News, VA summer 2006.

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prologue
Prologue
  • Designer: Eric Kimsey
  • The following powerpoint presentation was designed to fulfill the requirements of the TAPS program at Jefferson Labs in Newport News, VA summer 2006.
  • This presentation was also designed to accompanyand expound upon the topic of Light and the Electromagnetic Spectrum as required by the state of Virginia Physical Science SOL’s (PS.9c).
spectroscopy

Spectroscopy

A Tool of Astronomers

definitions
Definitions
  • Spectroscopy- the study of the light from an object.
  • Spectrometer- an instrument which spreads out light making a spectra.
  • Spectra- range of electromagnetic energy separated by wavelength.
slide4
Astronomers use spectroscopy because it allows them to determine the makeup of stars… without having to be present to take samples.
slide5
Studying an objects spectra can tell scientists the composition of an object, its temperature, its density and its motion.
mars exploration mission
Mars Exploration Mission

The Mars Exploration Rovers were launched with the goal of searching for and analyzing rock and soils on Mars. They utilized several spectrometers to analyze samples.

Mini-TES: miniature thermal emission spectrometer (examine rock, soil & atmosphere)

MB: Mossbauer Spectrometer (examine mineralogy of rocks & soils)

APXS: Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (analyze elements in rocks & soils)

cassini hyugen s mission
Cassini-Hyugen’s Mission

Mission: to gather information on Titan (Saturn’s moon).

VIMS: Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (gather data about surface, rings & atmosphere of Titan and Saturn).

CIRS: Composite Infrared Spectrometer (searches for heat and by that gather information on the object’s composition.

2 basic types of spectra
2 Basic Types of Spectra
  • Continuous- energy of all wavelengths
  • Discrete- energy at a particular wavelength
    • Emission or bright lines
    • Absorption or dark lines
continuous spectrum
Continuous Spectrum
  • Also called thermal or blackbody spectra
  • Spectra of stars, planets, moons
  • Depends on temperature

Ex: sunlight passing through a prism

slide11

Continuous Spectrum continued

Hotter objects

Shift toward this end

Longer wavelength

Shorter wavelength

Cooler objects

Shift toward this end

discrete spectrum absorption
Discrete SpectrumAbsorption

Each element has a unique signature of absorption lines. That pattern helps scientists identify the element(s).

Ex: stars, planets w/ atmospheres, & galaxies

Spectra

Cool, thin gas

Absorption

spectrum

Hot object

discreet spectrum emission
Discreet spectrum-Emission

Again, the pattern of the lines determines the identity of the element.

Ex: comets, nebula

& certain stars

Cold, empty space

Thin,hot

gas

Emission

spectrum

Spectra

motion of objects in space
Motion of Objects in Space

Compare the dark lines in the middle spectra to

the dark lines in the other two spectra.

Blue shift shows object is

moving toward the observer.

This shows the normal position or no motion.

This shows a red shift meaning that the object is moving away from the observer.

spectroscopy lab

Spectroscopy Lab

Determining the Spectra

of Certain Elements

what type of spectra is shown here
What type of spectrais shown here?
  • Continuous
  • Absorption
  • Emission
what type of spectra is shown here18
What type of spectrais shown here?
  • Continuous
  • Absorption
  • Emission
light is just one portion of the electromagnetic spectrum name 5 other parts of the em spectrum
Light is just one portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. Name 5 other parts of the EM spectrum.
acknowledgements
Acknowledgements
  • www.ipac.caltech.edu/Outreach/Edu/Spectra/spec.html
  • www.astronomynotes.com/lights4.htm
  • http://saturn.jpl.nasa.gov/spacecraft/instruments-cassini-cirs.cfm
  • http://pmo-sun.uoregon.edu/~astrosites.html
  • http://marsrovers.nasa.gov/overview
no way were you sleeping

No way! Were you sleeping?

Back to question #1

yes we have a winner

YES, we have a winner!

To next question….

that is a definite no

That is a definite NO!

Back to 2nd question