Problem-based Learning (PBL) ProceduresOSU ITLE Step 1: Define the problem. Step2: Propose hypotheses. Step 3: Gather and evaluate information.Step 4: Synthesis and solutions.Modified from:PBS Nature for Teacher
Step 1: Define the problem • Start with a guiding question that acts as a catalyst. Make sure it is a real-life problem and needs in-depth investigation. Then, students are encouraged to come up with a plausible hypothetical problem. • Involve students in the questioning, planning, and problem-solving process. • Students are encouraged to come up with hypotheses.
Step2: Propose hypotheses • Hypotheses are hunches or educated guesses about possible solutions. • In problem-based learning, students form hypotheses based on group discussion, previous knowledge, and any information acquired up to that point. Through the course of the problem-based exercise, students will constantly evaluate, synthesize or hypothesize or modify the hypotheses. • See a sample Handout to organize discussions on hypothetical solutions.
Step 3: Gather and evaluate information • Students will explore print, Internet, and multimedia sources to acquire data. They will locate, retrieve, evaluate information to test their hypotheses. • An important aspect of gathering information is evaluation. Is the material relevant? Is it current? Are the sources unbiased and is the information they provide accurate? • See a sample Handout to organize discussions on hypothetical solutions.
Step 4: Synthesis and solutions • Based on the evaluation of the data, students develop their solutions which incorporate a wide array of information. See a sample Handout to help facilitate this process. • Various solutions may exist, and synthesis and consensus need to be discussed and negotiated among students till a solution is achieved. See a sample Rubric for assessing PBL. • Allow sufficient time for reflection, individually and collaboratively.