OVERVIEW OF THE PSALMS. The Greek title of this book means “songs of praises.”. Key Words: Worship, praise, and prayer. Key verses:
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Psalm 1:1 Blessed is the man Who walks not in the counsel of the ungodly, Nor stands in the path of sinners, Nor sits in the seat of the scornful; 2 But his delight is in the law of the LORD, And in His law he meditates day and night.
Psalm 8:1 O LORD, our Lord, How excellent is Your name in all the earth, Who have set Your glory above the heavens!
Psalm 8:3 When I consider Your heavens, the work of Your fingers, The moon and the stars, which You have ordained, 4 What is man that You are mindful of him, And the son of man that You visit him?
Psalm 19:1 The heavens declare the glory of God; And the firmament shows His handiwork.
Psalm 19:14 Let the words of my mouth and the meditation of my heart Be acceptable in Your sight, O LORD, my strength and my Redeemer.
Psalm 90:1 LORD, You have been our dwelling place in all generations. 2 Before the mountains were brought forth, Or ever You had formed the earth and the world, Even from everlasting to everlasting, You are God.
Psalm 119:105 Your word is a lamp to my feet And a light to my path.
Key Psalm is 119, which is the longest Psalm and just about every verse praises the Word of God.
Psalm 46:1 God is our refuge and strength, A very present help in trouble.
There are five sections to the book of Psalms and each ends with a doxology such as:
Psalm 41:13 Blessed be the LORD God of Israel From everlasting to everlasting! Amen and Amen.
The first book was complied by Solomon and belongs to the early period of the Jewish monarchy.
The second and third books are historical and devotional Psalms that correspond to the divided kingdom and were probably complied by the men of Hezekiah (Prov. 25:1; 2 Chr. 29:30).
The fourth and fifth books belong to the Babylonian captivity and the return of the Jews during the time of Ezra and Nehemiah.
“Moses gave the Israelites the five books of the Law; and corresponding with these David gave them five books of the Psalms.”
Book I (Ps. 1-41) – Corresponds with Genesis. With the exception of four, all were written by David.
Subject: Man, his state of blessedness, fall and recovery (8:4; 10:18).
Book II (Ps. 42-72) – Corresponds with Exodus. Includes 18 written by David.
Subject: The nation of Israel, her ruin (42-49); redeemer (50-60), and redemption (61-72). Note Solomon’s description of the reign of the righteous king in Ps. 72
Book III (Ps. 73-89) - Corresponds with Leviticus. It centers in time of Hezekiah.
Subject: The Sanctuary is referred to in nearly every psalm of this book.
Book IV (Ps. 90-106) – Corresponds with Numbers. Contains two psalms of David and other psalms in the time of the exile.
Subject: The earth, Ps. 90 was written by Moses during the wilderness wanderings.
Book V (Ps. 107-150) – Corresponds with Deuteronomy. Contains 15 of David’s psalms. This section may have been compiled in the time of Nehemiah and Ezra.
Subject: The word of God (107:20). This is the theme of Ps. 119, the greatest Psalm.
Ps. 110:1 is quoted in Mat., Mk., Lk., Acts, 1 Cor., and Heb
Luke 24:44 "These are the words which I spoke to you while I was still with you, that all things must be fulfilled which were written in the Law of Moses and the Prophets and the Psalms concerning Me."
Psalm 66:13 I will go into Your house with burnt offerings; I will pay You my vows, 14 Which my lips have uttered And my mouth has spoken when I was in trouble. 15 I will offer You burnt sacrifices of fat animals, With the sweet aroma of rams; I will offer bulls with goats.
John 10:34 Jesus answered them, "Is it not written in your law, 'I said, "You are gods" '?
Jesus is quoting from Ps. 82:6.
At the heart of Hebrew poetry is parallelism and there are three different types:
Synonymous parallelism, in which the thought of two members or lines express the same thought with different words.
2. Antithetic parallelism, in which the basic thought of the first line is made more clear by contrasting that thought in the second line.
An example would be:
Psalm 1:6 For the LORD knows the way of the righteous,
But the way of the ungodly shall perish.
3. Synthetic parallelism, in which the second line explains or adds something the first one.
An example would be:
Psalm 19:7 The law of the LORD is perfect, converting the soul; The testimony of the LORD is sure, making wise the simple; 8 The statutes of the LORD are right, rejoicing the heart; The commandment of the LORD is pure, enlightening the eyes; 9 The fear of the LORD is clean, enduring forever; The judgments of the LORD are true and righteous altogether.