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Science Saturday --- October 1, 2005 IBM chip UMass Logo TI mirror array Nanotechnology Exciting new science and technology for the 21st century Nanotechnology Is a broad, interdisciplinary topic involving physics, chemistry, biology and engineering

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nanotechnology

IBM chip

UMass Logo

TI mirror array

Nanotechnology

Exciting new science and technology

for the 21st century

nanotechnology3

Nanotechnology

Is a broad, interdisciplinary topic involving physics, chemistry, biology and engineering

It has potential impact in electronics, medicine, materials, and a wide variety of application areas.

how small are nanostructures

Single Hair

Width = 0.1 mm

How small are nanostructures?

= 100 micrometers

= 100,000 nanometers !

1 nanometer = one billionth (10-9) meter

smaller still

DNA

6,000 nanometers

Red blood cell

3 nanometers

Smaller still

Hair

.

how do we make nanostructures
How do we make nanostructures?

How do we see nanostructures?

first how do we make nanostructures
First,how do we make nanostructures?

• Lithography

• Self-assembly

lithography
Lithography

Mark

Tuominen

Mark

Tuominen

making a microscopic mask

Electron Beam

Polymer film

Silicon crystal

Making a microscopic mask

Nanoscopic Mask !

lithography10
Lithography

Patterned

Several

Times

IBM

Copper

Wiring

On a

Computer

Chip

slide11

~10 nm

SELF ASSEMBLY

Block “B”

Diblock

Copolymer

Block “A”

PS

PMMA

Scale set by molecular size

Ordered Phases

10% A

30% A

50% A

70% A

90% A

slide12

BASIC NANOPOROUS TEMPLATE

PROCESS APPLICATIONS

Deposition

Template

Etching

Mask

Remove polymer

block within cylinders

(UV or ebeam exposure;

Acetic acid rinse)

Nanoporous

Membrane

“A versatile, self-assembling, nanoscale lithographic system”

sem image of nanoporous polymer template
SEM IMAGE OF NANOPOROUS POLYMER TEMPLATE

PS/PMMA

MW = 42,000

Array Period = 24 nm

Pore Diameter = 14 nm

slide14

Nanowires

Template Transfer

Copolymer

Template

Separations

& Sensors

Patterned

Media

Glass Pillars

FUNCTIONAL NANOARRAYS

NIRT

UMass Amherst

Devices

slide15

200 nm

100 nm

20 nm

unfilled

polymer

template

electrodeposited

cobalt

nanowires

gold

silicon

NANOWIRE ARRAYS using ELECTRODEPOSITION

1 0 1 1 0

cobalt

nanowires

• ULTRA-HIGH DENSITY MAGNETIC

DATA STORAGE

1.2 trillion wires/in2

slide16

LATERALLY-PATTERNED MEDIA

vertically-oriented

diblock copolymer film

NO HOLES

“patterned” nanoporous

polymer template

unexposed region

of copolymer film

HOLES

“patterned” nanowire

array

how do we see nanostructures
How do we see nanostructures?

• A light microscope?

• An electron microscope!

• A scanning probe microscope!

television set

TV screen

eye

electron beam

electron

source

Light !

Television Set
electron microscope

Electron

Beam

DETECTOR

SAMPLE

Electron Microscope