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Introduction To Molecular Biology By Salwa Hassan Teama (M.D) Molecular Biology Molecular biology ; the study of biology at the molecular level.
Salwa Hassan Teama (M.D)
All living things are grouped into three domain:
Function of cells
Secretion (Produce enzymes).
Store sugars or fat.
Brain cells for memory and intelligence.
Muscle cells to contract.
Skin cell to perform a protective coating.
Defense, such as white blood cells.The Cell
Eukaryoticgenome is more complex than that of prokaryotes and distributed among multiple chromosomes;
EukaryoticDNAis complexed with proteins called "histones;
Numerous membrane-bound organelles;
Complex internal structure;
Cell division by mitosis.Eukaryotic Cell
Without a nucleus; no nuclear membrane (genetic material dispersed throughout cytoplasm;
No membrane-bound organelles;
Cell contains only one circular DNA molecule contained in the cytoplasm;
DNA is naked (no histone);
Simple internal structure; and
Cell division by simple binary fission.Prokaryotic Cell
G1 = Growth and preparation of the chromosomes for replication
S = Synthesis of DNA
G2 = Preparation for mitosis
M = MitosisEukaryotic Cell Cycle
http://genome.gsc.riken.go.jp/hgmis/graphics/slides/01-0085jpg.htmlU.S. Department of Energy Human Genome Program, http://www.ornl.gov/hgmis.
Located in the cell nucleus.
The storage place for all genetic information.
The number of chromosomes varies from one species to another.
General Structure of Nucleic Acid
Replicationproceeds in a semiconservative manner, each strand of the DNA helix serves as a template for the synthesis of complementary DNA strands. This lead to the formation of two complete copies of the DNA molecule, each consisting of one strand derived from the parent DNA molecule and one newly synthesized complementary strand.DNA Replication
Mitochondria generate most of the cell's supply of adenosinetriphosphate (ATP).
Mitochondria are involved in a range of other processes, such as signaling,cellular differentiation,cell death, as well as the control of the cell cycle and cell growth.
Mitochondria have been implicated in several human diseases, including mental disorders,cardiac dysfunction,[and may play a role in the aging process.
Mitochondria has its own DNA.Mitochondrial DNA
mRNA; intermediate carrier of genetic information; deliver genetic information to the cytoplasm where protein synthesis take place.
The mRNAalso contains regions that are not translated: in eukaryotes this includes the5' untranslated region, 3' untranslated region, 5' capand poly-A tail.Messenger RNA
RNA molecules that carry amino acids to the growing polypeptide.Transfer RNA(tRNA)
Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)is the central component of the ribosome, the function of the rRNA is to provide a mechanism for decoding mRNA into amino acids and to interact with the tRNAs during translation by providing peptidyl transferase activity.
Posttranscriptional,control mRNA after it has been produced.
Translational,prevent translation; involve protein factors needed for translation.
Posttranslational,after the protein has been produced.Types of control in Eukaryotes
The Most Recent Applied Technologies
Molecular biology is facilitating research in many field including biochemistry, microbiology, immunology and genetics,……………………
Molecular biology allows the laboratory to be predictive in nature, it gives information that the patients may be at risk for disease (future).
BMC Bioinformatics 2001, 2:8doi:10.1186/1471-2105-2-8