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MAE 4261: AIR-BREATHING ENGINES. Overview of Axial Compressors Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department Florida Institute of Technology D. R. Kirk. Radial (Centrifugal) Devices Can not handle as high mass flow Less efficient than axial device Short length Robust Less Parts.

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mae 4261 air breathing engines

MAE 4261: AIR-BREATHING ENGINES

Overview of Axial Compressors

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department

Florida Institute of Technology

D. R. Kirk

two primary types of compressors
Radial (Centrifugal) Devices

Can not handle as high mass flow

Less efficient than axial device

Short length

Robust

Less Parts

Axial Devices

High mass flow

High efficiency

Stackable (multi-staging)

More parts

More complex

TWO PRIMARY TYPES OF COMPRESSORS
2 spool device pw2000
2 SPOOL DEVICE: PW2000

Low Pressure Compressor (wlow)

High Pressure Compressor (whigh)

High and Low Pressure Turbines

schematic representation
SCHEMATIC REPRESENTATION

Single Shaft Compressor

Twin-Spool Turbofan

2 spool device
2 SPOOL DEVICE

Low Pressure Spool

Low Pressure Compressor

High Pressure Compressor

features of interest pw2000
FEATURES OF INTEREST: PW2000

Intra-Blade Supports

Change in cross sectional flow area

Disks (centrifugal stress)

also called ‘Blisks’

Blades are twisted

review pressure distribution
REVIEW: PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION
  • Rotor
    • Adds swirl to flow
    • Adds kinetic energy to flow with ½rv2
    • Increases total energy carried in flow by increasing angular momentum
  • Stator
    • Removes swirl from flow
    • Not a moving blade → cannot add any net energy to flow
    • Converts kinetic energy associated with swirl to internal energy by raising static pressure of flow
    • NGV adds no energy. Adds swirl in direction of rotor motion to lower Mach number of flow relative to rotor blades (improves aerodynamics)
axial compressor energy exchange
AXIAL COMPRESSOR ENERGY EXCHANGE
  • Rotor
    • Adds swirl to flow
    • Adds kinetic energy to flow with ½rv2
    • Increases total energy carried in flow by increasing angular momentum
  • Stator
    • Removes swirl from flow
    • Not a moving blade → cannot add any net energy to flow
    • Converts kinetic energy associated with swirl to internal energy by raising static pressure of flow
    • NGV adds no energy. Adds swirl in direction of rotor motion to lower Mach number of flow relative to rotor blades (improves aerodynamics)

w

Centerline

S

R

R

NGV

losses and cascade testing
LOSSES AND CASCADE TESTING

Measure of loss correlated to

Blade geometry and

Easily measured in cascade

engine testing bird strike
ENGINE TESTING: BIRD STRIKE

http://100.rolls-royce.com/facts/view.jsp?id=215

additional issues and blade testing
ADDITIONAL ISSUES AND BLADE TESTING
  • Other Issues
    • High Cycle Fatigue
    • Materials
    • Manufacturing
    • Containment of Blade
    • Disk Rupture
    • Sealing
    • Tip and Hub Losses
    • Turbine Cooling Bleed
    • Inspection
    • Replacement Parts ($)

‘Blade-Out’ Simulation