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Justin E. Tilton and Jim Farmer As presented at the e-Learning 2006 Conference February 12, 2006 | Savannah, Georgia USA PowerPoint Presentation
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Learning Environment 2015

Justin E. Tilton and Jim Farmer

As presented at thee-Learning 2006 Conference

February 12, 2006 | Savannah, Georgia USA

publisher s note
Publisher’s note

This presentation at the ITC eLearning 2006 was abbreviated so a presentation of LAMS could be made as an implementation example of learning design.

The presentation has been returned to its original form.

  • Students will select what they want to learn, how they want to learn and when they want to learn.

Jason Cole at MoodleMoot Savannah

  • Colleges and universities will “certify” competencies expressed as “mastery of courses.”
  • Students will evaluate the quality of learning content and sequence.
  • Cost of instruction will matter
  • The learning systems in 2015 will be a few from those available today.
  • All learning systems will be based on learning design.
  • Course content with be “engineered”
  • Continuous assessment of effectiveness of learning systems.
the student s perspective
The student’s perspective

“The explosion of knowledge”

government response
Government response
  • Dual enrollment
  • Early admissions
  • International Baccalaureate
  • Credit for Advanced Placement examinations
  • Distance Learning
  • Credit by examination (CLEP: College Level Examination Program)
  • Improved articulation and advising

“Study on Acceleration Mechanisms in Florida,” Dec 2003

expenditures per fte student
Expenditures per FTE student

For 2001, Digest of Education Statistics 2003, Dec 2004

use of elearning
Use of eLearning
  • “We did not hear that colleges looked to distance learning as a common strategy to help accommodate students and minimize loss of access. We do want to point out that one college that serves a large portion of its students through distance learning did find it economical to increase this portion. … with the infrastructures already in place, they could accommodate additional students in these programs more easily than in classrooms.”

Ensuring Access with Quality to California’s Community Colleges, May 2004

presidents on e learning
Presidents on e-Learning
  • “Based on his work with the University of South Australia and his conversations with presidents and financial officers, [Bill Becker] said there is a general belief that eLearning increases the cost of education. He said the cost of the distance learning courses at the University of South Australia exceed those offered in the classroom because of the amount of time that faculty spend responding to students.”

“Access and Persistence Symposium,” September 8, 2005, Washington, DC

but we predict in a few years
But we predict in a few years
  • The colleges and universities will begin efforts focused on improving productivity
  • Education technology will be viewed as necessary to improve productivity
  • Major investments will be made in the learning environment based on the experience of the current “distance learning” programs
  • Leadership in teaching and learning will move from the research universities to the teaching universities and community colleges.
future 3 unit course costs
Future 3-unit course costs

Costs based on percentages from Arizona community colleges distance learning program in 2001 adjusted to current average undergraduate course costs and projections of change.

accommodating student needs
Accommodating student needs

Early work by Pat Suppes has demonstrated that students have different learning styles, which he represented as “trajectories” of learning based on when different students mastered course content.

The flexibility of eLearning suggest opportunities to transform classical “term-based” learning.

learning trajectories


Content Mastery

Course Grade

End of Scheduled Term


Learning trajectories

Based on the work of Pat Suppes at Stanford University

quick learner
Quick learner

Boredom vs. supplementary course content?


Content Mastery

Course Grade

End of Scheduled Term


early intervention
Early intervention

Monitoring tools can quickly identify students that are at risk


Content Mastery

Course Grade

End of Scheduled Term


unexpected externality
Unexpected externality

Unforeseen events resulting in inactivity


Content Mastery

Course Grade

End of Scheduled Term


success or failure
Success or failure?

Immutable time constraints limit a capable student


Content Mastery

Course Grade

End of Scheduled Term



Based on observations by Bryan Williams,, in supporting Moodle services.

  • Students will continue learning if the eLearning resources are available.
    • Quick learners will go beyond the scope of a course if materials are available.
    • Those slow to learn or interruptions to their learning will succeed if given additional time.
types of e learning
Types of e-Learning

Seizing the Opportunity: The Quality and Extent of Online Education

in the United States, 2002 and 2003, Sloan Consortium, Sep 2003

student effort
Student effort



Hours per week to achieve content mastery





3h 2h 1h

Blended Collaboration Tutorial

Method of instruction

basis for projections
Basis for projections
  • Twenty minutes of eLearning “drill and practice” time is equivalent to sixty minutes in a traditional classroom.
  • Students are expected to spend three hours in study for each hour in lecture.
  • Collaboration time differs sharply depending upon the characteristics of the group.
  • Tutorials take additional time because of the interest and focus of the student (and achieve more than expected “course mastery.”
proposed open closed courseware
Proposed open /closed courseware

Proposed, Open University of the Netherlands, Feb 2006

expected results
Expected results
  • “Learning on demand” in chunks (at no cost to the student)
  • Incentive to either
    • Subscribe to tutorial support
    • Participate as a student
    • Seek “certification” by examination

paying current tuition

  • Increase value of “brand” and gain course enrollments
engineered courses
“Engineered courses”

Lübeck University of Applied Sciences

  • Learning objectives (using EU transfer course objectives)
  • Contract author only for draft text and media suggestions
  • Development Manager
    • Instructional design
    • Media development
    • Assessment authoring

In separate units

academic services
Academic services

Lübeck University of Applied Sciences

  • Technical support (separate from faculty)
  • Tutor
    • Domain competence
    • Native language of the student regardless of the language of the course
    • Selected for ability to communicate
  • Academic Services Support System

(see also University of Oxford and Open University UK)

information technology
Information technology

SUNY Learning Initiative

  • “Industry” standards + higher education standards and practices
  • “Platform and tools”
  • Tools and interface appropriate for multiple levels of faculty competencies – from simple text through multi-media to learning design
  • Focus on “long tail” of specialized learning tools
  • Integrated with administration, library and external information sources
summary of trends
Summary of trends
  • Professional specialists
    • Move process control from faculty to learning designers (and learning systems)
  • Mergers or consortia to achieve economies of scale
  • Public pressures to improve cost/benefit
  • More granular content, more flexibility in schedule, multi-format learning materials
barriers to success
Barriers to success
  • Change in culture from faculty-centered instruction to student learning
  • Change in organization form – functional organization
  • Acceptance of increased “automation”
  • Development of feedback to achieve adaptive leaving activities
  • Adoption of standard learning objectives for many undergraduate courses.
to be successful
To be successful
  • Content interoperability is imperative
  • New consortium-developed or commercial software with new functions and new architecture
  • Open standards are required to reduce IT maintenance costs
  • Specialization will require retraining current staff

Collaboration is key to lower unit costs

transformation is feasible
Transformation is feasible
  • eLearning has produced an experienced and knowledgeable cadre (many attending eLearning 2006).
  • Increased effectiveness and reduced costs have been broadly demonstrated.
  • All needed information and education technologies have been developed and are being used somewhere.
the end jxf@immagic com jxf@georgetown edu jet@immagic com jet@nuerasoft cz



“Learning Activities” Matter

Ernie Ghiglione


Project Manager

Macquarie University



the lams system
The LAMS System

Learning Activities Management System

Both while working at the Open University UK and then as head of the e-Learning Strategy Unit of the UK Department for Education and Skills (DfES), Diana Laurillard has called for the widespread adoption of learning design. On February 17th she will keynote the LAMS Workshop at the University of London.


This presentation is based on a presentation made by Justin Tilton at the “Open Source in Government Conference,” March 16, 2004, at George Washington University and his subsequent research at the University of Maryland’s Robert H. Smith School of Business.

im+m’s Jon Allen provided graphical design and graphics, and suggestions on presentation.


JA-SIG and im+m publications are in the public domain and can be freely reproduced. Information in this presentation was taken from public sources or with permission and can be redistributed.

The presentation itself can be reproduced and redistributed provided there are no changes made to the content and it is reproduced in its entirety.

the higher education web world
The higher education web world





Actual screen shots of production applications, Justin E. Tilton, 2003

students expectations shaped by
Students expectations shaped by...
  • [In the U.S.] Their experience applying for admissions and financial aid
  • Their use of financial services portals
  • Their use of the Internet
  • Their life in a “real-time, information rich” environment.

Be prepared:

94% of Internet-using (78%) youths age 12-17 use the Internet for school research, 71% say it is the major source for their school projects and reports, 58% use a school or class Website, 17% have created a Webpage for school, 74% use Instant Messaging.

Pew Internet, August 2002

students now expect
Students now expect...
  • Customer service 24 hours a day,7 days a week
  • Complete information froma single source
  • Information by Web, e-mail, telephone, facsimile, and wireless devices
    • response time of 15 seconds for telephone, 10 seconds for Web, and 2 hours for e-mail and facsimile
    • access to a complete customer history
students prefer
Students prefer
  • A portal
  • Single sign-on even if that means revealing personal logons and passwords [aggregation/credential caching]
  • Selection of content [portlets] and layout [user profile]
  • Common portlet navigation and icons [consistent look & feel]
serving students
Serving students

Gartner/Avaya, CFO Jan 2005

types of e learning54
Types of e-Learning

Seizing the Opportunity: The Quality and Extent of Online Education

in the United States, 2002 and 2003, Sloan Consortium, Sep 2003

rio salado college and plato math
Rio Salado College and Plato Math
  • Using commercially developed Interactive Mathematics Rio Salado offered four courses with one instructor.
  • The number of students in a section increased from 35 to 100.
  • A course assistant was added to help with course management, freeing the instructor to focus on student learning.

Academic Systems Inc. Profile, October 2002

northern oklahoma college
Northern Oklahoma College
  • Using Interactive Mathematics, the pass rate for Elementary Algebra increased from 45% to more than 70%.
  • Sixty percent of the incoming students at Northern Oklahoma College are deficient in mathematics.
  • “Students are passing math and staying in school,” Debbie Quirey said. “75 percent of our students who take one or more developmental math classes go on to pass college algebra.”

Plato Implementation Story, April 2004

student motivation to learn
Student motivation to learn
  • “Quirey and others in the department attribute the success to students being able to review the Interactive Mathematics instructional module over and over again until they understand it.”
  • Plato Implementation Story, April 2004
  • “According to instructors, students using Interactive Mathematics reported that they tended to go back and review the software’s instruction more often than ask questions of the instructor or ask for help from tutors.”

Thomas Coe, Mathematics Department Chair, Rio Salado College

Academic Systems Profile, October 2002

student willingness to learn
Student willingness to learn
  • Students can accelerate their learning and finish more than one course level per term.
  • “I have had up to 10 percent of my students complete two courses in a single semester. A few have even completed three courses.”

Kim Brown, Mathematics Department Chair, Tarrant County College

Plato Implementation Story, April 2004

students learn at different rates
Students learn at different rates

Sillinger and Suppes, 1999