Pre Jewish Jerusalem • Archeological findings suggest that there was development in the area that is now Jerusalem as far back as the 4th millennium BCE • Earliest written records are as far back as the 19th century BCE • Was inhabited by a Canaanite tribe called the Jebusites until the 11th century BCE
First Temple Jerusalem • King David conquered the city in the 10th century and gave the city its name of Jerusalem or Yerushalayim • David’s reign ended around 970 BCE • Solomon took over at this point • Built the first temple within a decade of his taking over power • The sight of this first temple is a sacred place for Muslims, Jews and Christians as the last known resting place of the Ark of the Covenant • Soon after Solomon died the kingdom split into two parts • Jerusalem remained the capitol of the Kingdom of Judea • Refugees from the Assyrian conquered Kingdom of Israel fled to Jerusalem • Eventually in 586 BCE the Babylonians conquered the Kingdom of Judea and destroyed its temple
Second Temple Jerusalem • In 538 BCE the Persian King Cyrus the Great allowed the Jews to return to Judea so they could rebuild both Jerusalem and the temple • Jerusalem returned to being the center for Jewish worship and the capitol of Judea • In 19 BCE the Temple Mount was elevated and work began on an expansion of the second temple under Herod the Great • The Temple Mount is one of the most contested spots in the world • Muslims have the Dome of the Rock and the Al-Aqsa Mosque • Sight of the First and Second Temples and said to be the sight of the Third when the Messiah comes • In 6 CE the city came under the direct control of the Romans • Roman rule was challenged by the Jews with the Great Jewish Revolt which led to the destruction of the second temple in 70 CE
Roman/Byzantine Jerusalem • There was a second large revolt by the Jews from 132-135 • The revolt was led by Bar Kokhba and it took the Romans three years to crush it • As a punitive measure the Romans sacked Jerusalem and banned all Jews from Jerusalem • There was a massive Roman reconstruction of Jerusalem in 135 CE under Emperor Hadrian • Under Constantine I Jerusalem became a center for Christianity • Built the Church of the Holy Sepulchre on the sight of Calvary (previously a temple to Venus there)
Muslim Control • Caliph Umar ibn al-Khattāb conquered Jerusalem in 638 CE • Allowed Jews and Christians to live there in return for a tax (states in Shari’ah that people of the book are allowed to practice their religion in return for a jizya a per capita tax on adult males who are not monks and not Muslim) • Caliph Abd al-Malik commissioned and completed the Dome of the Rock by the end of the 7th century • Jerusalem diminished as a great city as the various Muslim powers fought for control
The Crusades • In 1099 Jerusalem was taken by the First Crusade • The Crusaders slaughtered most of the Muslim and Jewish inhabitants • The Crusaders established the Kingdom of Jerusalem • Saladin conquered Jerusalem in 1187 • Was much more peaceful in his conquest, killed no civilians after the battle • A third crusade was called by the Europeans because of Saladin, but it was not a success • Emperor Fredrick II successfully conquered Jerusalem, Bethlehem and Nazareth in the sixth crusade • These cities were only held by the crusaders for about fifteen years (1228-1244) • Post-Crusade Muslim Rule • Jerusalem was conquered once again by the Ayyubids in 1244 • They were later replaced by the Mamelukes in 1260 • The Ottoman Turks took over Jerusalem in 1517 and held on to it until the 20th century
British/Israeli Control • The British Army captured the city after the Battle of Jerusalem in 1917 • In 1922 the League of Nations entrusted the British Empire to help establish a State of Israel • In 1947 the UN partition plan recommended that certain sites remain internationally governed • Big controversy to this day about this • Never went into effect and so the State of Israel and Jordan took half of the city each • In 1967 Israel captured the other half of the city in the Six-Day War
Jerusalem in the Hebrew Bible • Spiritual center for Jewish world. • Located in land God promised to Abraham (Canaan). • Temple Mount- supposed site of Abrahams sacrifice of Isaac, as well as sight of 1st and 2nd Temples.
The Holy Land and Abraham • Gen 12:1-9, 15:18-21- God’s Covenant with Abraham. • Gen 22:1-3- The sacrifice of Isaac (in land of Moriah, also thought to be site of Dome of the Rock).
Solomon’s Temple and the Babylonian Exile • 2 Sam 7:1-17- God tells David that his heir will build a house in His name (1st Temple). • 2 Kings 25:1-12- King Nebuchadnezzar, of Babylon, destroys city of Jerusalem (along with 1st Temple).
Rebuilding of Jerusalem • Zec 1:14-17- God forgives the people of Jerusalem and chooses them (again) to be his people and Jerusalem to be his city. • Neh 2:11-20- Nehemiah begins rebuilding Jerusalem so it will “no longer be an object of derision.”
Jerusalem in the New Testament-Luke 21 • Destruction of the temple is foretold -Nation will rise against nation -Kingdom against Kingdom -Earthquakes -Famines -Plagues• The kingdom of God will come• Story of the fig tree
Luke 24 • Resurrection of Jesus• Appearance to the two travelers• Meeting with the disciples in Jerusalem• Appearance to the group
John 2 • Found people who sold oxen, sheep, and doves, as well as money-changers • Made a whip to drive them out • Keeping clean the holy ppace of God
John 11 • Going to Jerusalem to purify themselves • Expecting Jesus to come purify them
Jerusalem and the Islamic Faith • The Muslim tradition states that Islam precedes all religions and shares it’s roots in Judaism and Christianity, with all three having strong religious ties to the city of Jerusalem in the now independent State of Israel. • Jerusalem is said to be the third holiest city in the Islamic faith, behind the cities of Makkah and Madinah, respectively.
Al-Aqsa Mosque & The Dome of the Rock • Jerusalem is home to two major Islamic holy sites: Al-Aqsa Mosque, or the Temple Mount, and the Dome of the Rock.
Al-Aqsa Mosque • The Temple Mount (Masjid al-Aqsa) • Known as “The Farthest Mosque”, it is located in East Jerusalem, part of Israel but also considered a part of the Future State of Palestine. • This structure has progressively expanded over time, but is still constructed over the original mosque that Muhammad and many other religious figureheads worshipped.
Al-Aqsa Mosque • The Mi’raj • During Muhammad’s Mi’raj, the miraculous trip from Makkah to Jerusalem in one night, he was first taken to the Al-Aqsa Mosque by the angel Gabriel. • Qur’an, Surah 17:1 • Some scripture in the Qu’ran has been interpreted to mean that the journey was only a divine dream. • Qu’ran, Surah 17:60
Al-Aqsa Mosque • The First Qibla • Before Muslims began facing Makkah to pray together as a sign of religious unity and oneness with Allah, they first directed their prayer at the Al-Aqsa Mosque. • Qu’ran, Surah 2:142-150
Dome of the Rock • Contained inside of the whole of the Al-Aqsa Mosque is the Dome of the Rock,a holy site built around the rock where it is believed that Muhammad was taken into heaven by the angel Gabriel during his Mi’raj. • Although Jews believe that Abraham fulfilled his covenant with God at this same spot, Muslims believe that Abraham nearly sacrificed his son Ishmael, not Isaac, in what is now the stretch of desert in Saudi Arabia, called Mina.